The contribution of archeology in the trail of Lewis and Clark

Archeology: SUPPORT FOR Leavis and Clark

Archeology faced with special problems in determining the campsites on the trail, but has benefited from recent advances in technology. In contrast to the field of the Civil War battlefield or visit the pre-historic home track, the expedition route gives very little evidence.
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Lewis and Clark campsites difficult to confirm because the researchers have left few traces. In 2004, the authors of “Lewis and Clark”, “Heritage Memories” and “New Perspective” had a dark look at the archaeological role in bitsenale Lewis and Clark. Ya
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This article draws a vivid picture of reviewing the literature up to the present time to explore some of the relatively recent developments in the field of archeology. It focuses on areas in Montana, Idaho, Oregon and the Columbia River Basin in Washington Camp station.
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It will also put forward new scientific methods used to search for campsites, and explore how these findings have helped to save some of these sites from destruction.
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National Park Service has always supported archaeological research and in favor of maintaining the trails. Their website lists the efforts of the Commission of Lewis and Clark Trail, Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Inc.
and other public and private organizations which attempt to find and keep track of. Modern Americans can only see a few places on the trail as they saw the Lewis and Clark. On the NPS website has photos that show more pristine views of many sites.
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NPS lists sites in Montana and other states, such as site 32, Fort Mandan and 34, Fort Klatsap of archaeological significance. ii
On the & # 39; archaeological research facilities in Montana include:
Area 3 Lemchen-pass; Site 4, Lolo Trail; Site14, State Park Rock Beaverhead Rock; Stage 15, pass Bozeman; Area 16, in the Buffalo jump Arrow Creek; 17 playground, camp, disappointment; Playground 18 joint Maryyas and Missouri rivers; Area 19 Gate mountains; Site 20, Great Falls; Site 21, Lewis and Clark; Site 22, the Lewis fight Blekfet site; Playground 23, Upper Missouri River breaks national monument; Area 24, Pompey and pillar; Playground 25 Rocks Horses; Site 26, Ross Hall; Platform 27, three forks of Missouri; and the site of 28, and leisure travelers. iii

Buffalo Jump, leisure travelers and the bottom of the Great Falls were particularly useful for archaeologists.

Jump buyfalav in Arrow Creek

In a beautiful section of “White Cliffs”, which took place in Missouri, the expedition “Lewis” and “Clark” probably were the first US citizens, who saw and recorded the buffalo jump site, where were still dead animals. 29 mine in 1805 during the Lewis and Clark expedition occurred this leap. He was on the north side of the base 120 along the Missouri-futovay rocks that came up almost to the water’s edge. Men watched and smelled the carcasses of more than 100 dead and rotting buffaloes, which are devoured by wolves.

Place was discovered in 1963 as a group 24CH240 Interdepartmental Program for the archaeological rescue Missouri basin, which conducted a survey of places in this part of the river. rescue team found only two bone fragments, some others of whom also watched a private owner. IV

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traveler Rest

On vacation “Traveler” in the 1990s, aerial infrared photography showed evidence of ring caps. Historical research coincided with the coordinates of latitude and longitude recorded by Lewis and Clark in the very place Lola Creek. Dan Hall and other equipment used magnetometers to find changes in the magnetic properties of the soil. They also found Vaughn cracked rock, and charcoal solid lead puddle. These findings suggest that this place is exposed to strong heat, believed to be a result of a large military cook, cooking. They knew that the expedition had melted their empty cans with lead powder to make musket balls, thereby puddle of lead.

Sites of other countries, which are discussed in this article include sites 32, Fort Mandan and 34, Fort Klatsap. Later, archaeologists have found signs that the trench was dug 300 meters from the firing zone, which corresponds to the requirements of the army at the time, regulating the location of toilets. vyparshchyka mercury tests confirmed the presence of mercury in the trench, and not in the surrounding soil. In his journal, Lewis noted that at least two men were sick at this point travel and receive medicines that contain a sufficient amount of mercury, which would pass through the body and left in place. v These pills are known as “Dr. Rush” were sixty percent of mercury, which is not decomposed.

These findings are significant because the area was surrounded by the living area, which is growing rapidly, and camping was recognized as one of the most endangered historic places in the nation in 1999. This popularity has helped to attract a grant fund Melanie Richard King, which allowed the purchase of 15 hectares is considered the heart of the camping. vi

Lower portage Big Falls

In the 1990s on the site of the lower body of water large bodies of water of the Missouri River in Montana Dr. Ken Karsmiski I studied one of the areas marked by the remains of 12 fires. Researchers & # 39; Magazines tell us about 12 days in this camp. Three fires are equally spaced in a line that involves organized camping were found. Arheamagnitnyya charred remains of dates that correspond to the occupation of Lewis and Clark.

They also radiocarbon dated with carved wooden stakes disclosed in the vertical position in the soil to 1810 ± 40, and a portion of the bones of bison to 1810 ± 50. Party members “C” D produced a large amount of the dried fish, meat and pemmikanav (dried meat bison mixed with fat), while in the camp at Big Falls. Karsmizki added the fifth spot at which he hoped to obtain the remains of a collapsible boat with an iron frame, which the party has refused top of a large waterfall, because they lacked materials – pine tar and needles for sewing together – it is necessary for the manufacture of utensils waterproof. vii

Articles about campsites in archeology We continued to work include a search of the elusive iron boats, canoes Elavston camp, Fort Mandan area in North Dakota and the search for Camp Wood / Camp Dzyuba, near St. Louis, St. Louis. While the search for iron ship Ken Karsmizki exciting and receiving letters to the editor, in this article it is too involved. Assistance received from the Great Falls of NASA, will be discussed later.

Canoeing Elavston camp should be revised due to recent events. Article by Ken Karsmizki in WPO , Vol. 21 no. 4 “Search hidden, some effort to find the expedition camp”, with the & # 39; is a compelling discussion of the difficulties faced archaeologists in 1995. It is also an excellent overview of archeology.

The lack of concrete facts in notebooks, changing the course of rivers, historical fires and floods, poorly drawn maps and erosion, the recent invasion of the land and the unreliability of local informants were problems in all archaeological sites, not to mention the fact. resources and funding.

Despite the problems, the author is optimistic that archeology eventually pulled from the scope of the historical facts of history and folklore, and justify them in material reality. viii

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Canoe Camp Elavston

The camp on the island of Yelaston River – a place that is being investigated as a possible site of the camp by canoe kayak in July 1806. Archaeologist Tom Rust began research on the island in 2011, when historian and cartographer Ralph Sonders Rust convinced that he has placed the canoe seat. His study of the original maps, historic photographs and aerial photographs enabled him to make sure that his calculations found a place at eight other sites were considered for the camp along the 12-mile mile River between Columbus and Park City.

Rust explore the island using magnetometers and meters of soil sustainability to assess violations and soil compaction. The hope was that the survey will be able to find an old fireplace, toilet, place the head, and even the way in which men are moved by camping. Their efforts were rewarded when they had a few strokes of the metal detector and found perfectly round lead ball, which is believed to have been on a working day. Isotopic analysis was consistent with the artifact from vacation travelers. They also found mercury deposit in the wells, which corresponded to what was found in the vacation traveler. Buckle and bone, expressed in the same field at the same depth, and some brought near what looked like fire him, tested with an acceptable date range, were further proof that it was a camp canoe.

This site is interesting for the environment, as the river Elavston greatly moved. Fortunately, when the river was moving, even forming a new channel, and then bouncing back, the island seems to be spared from destruction by flood waters, which could wash away any evidence of the expedition. ix

Bar navel bar

After returning home in May 1806 the Lewis and Clark Expedition camped near Kami, waiting, when the snow melts in the mountains Bitterta. Meryvater Lewis on this route sent Sergeant John Ordeuya and two other people to the Snake River to trade salmon with “Nez Perce” – the food necessary for their passage through the mountains. Ordeuey wrote about the trip in their magazine. “We have come a long house and down the hills in the worst we’ve ever seen, as the broken road”, – stated in the materials of the magazine. And on their arrival in the village: “For a long time they invited us spread robes, so we sat and faced us with fried salmon and some of their white bread, which they called & # 39; uppah & # 39; the length of a hundred feet or twenty feet wide, and all in one. ”

State archaeologist Ken Reid with Idaho State Historical Society led project to investigate in Cougar Rapids Bar. They found a groove lodges and slope, where they are likely to wait until the fish was prepared. Using high-tech tools to look below the surface, Dr. Reid’s team reflected the rim of an apartment building and hearths or fireplaces, which ran down the middle. Dr. Reid and his team dug a small test pit in the hearth and picked up the mound on one side of the house, and found the artifacts – carbon dated to the early 1800s. They also found a half blue glass ball, two brass taps and a tiny arrow. These data in conjunction with a description of a village in Ordway magazine, as well as other studies of possible ways to Snake River make Dr. Reed is very sure that this is where Ordeuey and his men stayed two nights Trading salmon. x

Sites Rock Fort and Camp station, as well as Fort Klatsap on the far western part of the trail also had new development. Proven methodology Karsmizki – is long laborious process of analysis charts and magazines, geophysical surveys and interpretation of test sites and, if it is to justify the wide excavation and laboratory analyzes. This analysis includes dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating, dating arheamagnitnyya, lead isotope analysis and faunal analysis in many laboratories in the US and Canada. This finding helped NASA and the US Air Force.

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Rock fortress

In an interview with & # 39; nd correspondent John Komptanu Oregon in July 2010. Ken Karsmiski spoke about his research in the Rock Fort and NASA help in this project. He pointed out that Discovery housing latitude calculations were not accurate, and maps of the same area were different. He said: “They (with D) wrote a million words in their journals, but nine journalists see everything differently, especially at a distance people are changing their views on the environmental features The same thing happened everywhere they went..” Karsmizki should It was to see the course map and look at the details. NASA has offered to help with four satellites use sensors to create maps The Dalles, that they might impose on the Lewis and Clark map. Incidentally, this Mill Creek and the bank of the Columbia River. They then used ground penetrating radar in and put thirty-six holes in the lattice in the region in which they considered there. If it is not, they have committed themselves to reducing the three, because Clark wrote that they were in artificial fort established by stone walls, and they were afraid to attack. The area was covered grobnay surface and had seven feet on top of the historical surface. On the windowsill, they were able to find the dog’s skull and leather strips.

Unfortunately, in the Columbia River there is only one site Rock Fort, which is no longer under water because of dams. It is located in Dali, near the underpass Union Street and is in state hands. It was a good place because it was not a single building, and napavnyalnae coating may retain it for excavation. xi

NASA satellite images connect precisely with detailed historical maps to help find Karsmizkam camping. In some cases, technology can reduce the potential area of ​​several square miles up to ten hectares. Control of the application of Earth Sciences, NASA has provided images Karsmizki and his team. Mark Giardini, Acting Deputy Director ESAD in Stennis, said that the NASA scientists could create a 360-degree view of the area where the traveling researchers and archaeologists can get the same kind as that of aircraft. Color is very important when looking for historical places. For example, a small difference in the shade of a large wheat field may indicate a place outpost. xii

Station Camp Fort Vancouver

Opening the case of Lewis and Clark passed here only 10 days. Historians have called the place “Station Camp”, because the main sightseeing station Lieutenant William Clark was a detailed and accurate map of the mouth of the Columbia River. and vicinity. Dr. Wilson is the principal investigator, included in research and development of various scientific methods to establish the chronology of the site and obtain additional information from the artifacts, including carbon-14 dating, ground penetrating radar, magnetometers analysis and isotopic analyzes. Dr. Wilson – archaeologist regional department of the National Park Service in the western region of the Pacific, based at the National historic site of Fort Vancouver. He was also the main link with the Indian tribes that have pretendentsyi the site of Central Village. For his work he was awarded the John Kotera. John Kotter was one of the founding fathers of historical archeology in the United States. xiii

His work was important for the eco-footprints, because his research formed the basis for the interpretation of the park development on Station Camp / Middle Village Village and the project, which involved the nation Chinook, Washington, and the National Park Service. He also attracted students and the public, thereby raising awareness of the importance of the site for the history.
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Fort Klatsap

Fort Klatsop, in the Columbia River about five miles south of the modern Astoria, was the winter camp 1805 33rd housing opening and the first tangible evidence of the United States on the Pacific coast in the words of Steven Beckham the historical Lewis and Clark College. Fort became critical to US claims to the region.

The original settlement a little more than three months, it was recorded that may burn in the 1850s to make way for the Pioneer Garden. In 1955, the local community has built a replica of Fort Klatsapa (named after the local tribe), to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the expedition. In 2005, Fort Klatsap again burned down just a month before the on-site will be scheduled two-year celebration of Lewis and Clark.

Federal arson investigation found that the restored Fort Klatsop was the victim of an accidental fire, which started with a traveling angle of the working chamber. Investigators can forgive instantly regarded archeology as suspects. Although some excavations were carried out on the site of the camp in 1950, the destruction of replica given archaeologists of the National Park Service to Doug Wilson opportunity properly to excavate this site with the use of modern methods, including remote sensing. His crew has already identified about 20 percent of the site without disturbing the concrete foundation of the reconstructed fort, including several deep holes filled with charcoal, the possible remains of dug wells for the fortress. “We have turned this tragedy into a real possibility,” – said Wilson. xiv

NASA also participated in this site. Satellite data includes a 30-meter Mapper Landsat Thematic and 1 meter IKONOS data space way xv

NASA Changing the face of the West, and archaeological research

The purpose of NASA scientists and other researchers working on a special two-year project was the shooting of remote sensing satellites and airplanes to create accurate three-dimensional maps and visualization of the Lewis and Clark campsites road and stops, as well as to produce a collection of satellite images available online. Акрамя археалагічных даследаванняў, задачы па кіраванні ландшафтам ўключаюць ацэнку ўздзеяння рэжымаў парушэння пажараў на дзікіх землях на экасістэмы, маніторынг змены забалочаных участкаў, вымярэнне гарадской экспансіі, адсочванне шкодных і інвазівных пустазелля, а таксама адлюстраванне вегетатыўнай мазаікі для ключавых лагераў Люіса і Кларка, такіх як Форт Клатсоп ( зіма 1805-1806).

Гэты праект быў распрацаваны на падставе пагаднення NASA Space Space, у якім удзельнічалі таленты кампаніі GCS Research, кампаніі па геаграфічных прасторах інфармацыйных тэхналогій у Місуле, штат Мантана і TechLink Center of State University (MSU). “Пастаяннае значэнне экспедыцыі Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery складаецца ў часопісах і картах, якія яны стваралі. Яны ўяўляюць сабой здымак з прыроднай гісторыі Паўночнай Амерыкі дзвесце гадоў таму. Наборы дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання NASA ўяўляюць сабой яшчэ адзін здымак у час “, – сказаў Уэстон, менеджэр тэхналогій MSU TechLink Center. xvi

У 2003 годзе NASA, GCS Research і яго тэхналагічныя партнёры будавалі адзін з этапаў геасістэмы Lewis і Clark, які ўключае ў сябе геабазічную базу дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання камбінаваных актываў з розных існуючых геапрасторальных рэсурсаў для Lewis і Clark Trail. Выявы QuickGird DigitalGlobe былі ўключаны ў растравы каталог Lewis and Clark. xvii

стар 6

Яшчэ адным прадуктам, распрацаваным падчас праекта Льюіса і Кларка, стала віртуальная і дакладная рэндэрынг некалькіх гістарычных сайтаў Корпуса Адкрыццяў, асабліва Форт-Клатсап. Гэтыя віртуальныя прадукты пашыраюць навуковыя даследаванні і служаць для навучання і інфармавання насельніцтва пра праект і яго вынікі. Па заканчэнні праекта былі апрацаваны трыццаць розных набораў дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання космасу NASA. Гіперспектральныя дадзеныя адкрываюць новыя магчымасці для будучых археалагічных адкрыццяў. Гіперспектральная тамаграфія дзеліць спектр на значна больш дыяпазонаў, чым можа выявіць чалавечае вока. Мэтай гіперспектральнай візуалізацыі з'яўляецца атрыманне спектру для кожнага пікселя ў выяве сцэны з мэтай пошуку аб'ектаў, ідэнтыфікацыі матэрыялаў альбо выяўлення працэсаў.

Тэхналогія дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання і аналіз малюнкаў зараз перажываюць глыбокі зрух у акцэнтах ад шырокай класіфікацыі да выяўлення, ідэнтыфікацыі і стану канкрэтных матэрыялаў, як арганічных, так і неарганічных.

Гэтыя новыя тэхналогіі прапануюць археолагам яшчэ больш магчымасцей для даследаванняў і аналізу. Адной з магчымых абласцей, дзе гіперспектральныя дадзеныя могуць быць вельмі каштоўнымі, з'яўляецца фітаархеалогія, якая вызначаецца як аналіз узаемасувязі паміж расліннасцю і археалогіяй. Тры канкрэтныя вобласці фітаархеалогіі могуць атрымаць вялікую карысць ад гіперспектральных малюнкаў:

1) выяўленне канкрэтных відаў раслін, якія звязаны з археалагічнымі помнікамі;

2) Параўнальная фізіялогія раслін або вызначэнне стрэсу ці энергіі раслін; and

3) Стварэнне індэкса зменлівасці расліннасці. xviii

Падарожнікі, якія ідуць за Корпусам Адкрыцця, шукаюць вопыту. Фрэсанк і Спенс у Льюіса і Кларка, Спадчыны, Успаміны і Новая перспектыва гэта выдатна выказваюць. “Яны не прыязджаюць у адзін турыстычны пункт; замест гэтага яны сустракаюць зусім новы ландшафт, які не відаць з бруёў або чатырохпалосных дарог … Услед за капітанамі” – асабістае падарожжа адкрыццяў, турыстычная адысея, якая злучае ландшафт. і гісторыя, апісаная ў часопісах Льюіса і Кларка “. xix

Цяпер праз шмат гадоў след зноў ацэньваюць прыгажосць і дзіва, якія ў ім убачылі Льюіс і Кларк. Як спадзяваўся Кен Карсміскі ў сваім артыкуле 1995 года для “Мы працягваліся”, археалагічныя даследаванні адыгралі важную ролю ў захаванні слядоў шляхам вызначэння кемпінгаў і прадастаўлення навуковых доказаў іх матэрыяльнага існавання. Археолагі не толькі прасунулі прафесію гістарычнай археалогіі пры дапамозе найноўшых тэхналогій і NASA, але і дапамаглі Нацыянальнай паркавай службе і шматлікім іншым дзяржаўным і прыватным арганізацыям вярнуць след для наступных пакаленняў следчых даследчыкаў.

I Kris Fresonke and Mark Spence, Lewis and Clark, Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives, (Берклі, Лос-Анджэлес, Лондан: University of California Press, 2004) 247.

ii Люіс і Кларк, агляд гістарычных месцаў і будынкаў, служба нацыянальнага парку

iii Мантанская археалогія: праект публічнай кнігі па археалогіі Мантаны, Льюіса, Кларка і археалогіі, 7 лютага 2009 г. (Крыніца: Лекцыі доктара Ды Тэйлара; т. 3, археалогія № 2 у Мантане ” Кароткая гісторыя археалогіі Мантаны, “)

iv Тамсама.

v Kathleen A. Dah, “Археалогія падарожнікаў”, “Trail Watch”, “Акадэмічны вэб-часопіс”, які вывучае інтэрпрэтацыю экспедыцыі Люіса і Кларка і двухгадовы юбілей у музеі, гістарычныя месцы, інтэрпрэтацыйныя цэнтры і папулярныя сродкі масавай інфармацыі.

vi Шэры Дэўлін, “Даследчыкі дакладна вызначылі месца падарожнікаў для адпачынку – Кемпінг Льюіса і Кларка быў няправільна адлюстраваны гады таму”, Місульян, студзень26, 2004.

vii Джэсіка Э. Сарачэні, “Пошук Льюіса і Кларка”, Археалогія 51, вып. 1, (студзень / люты 1998 г.)

старонка 7

viii Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, “Пошук нябачнага: некаторыя намаганні, каб знайсці экспедыцыйныя лагеры”, мы працягваліся 21, вып. 4 (лістапад 1995 г.): 4-12.

ix Brett French: “Доказы сцвярджаюць, што на востраве Йеллоустоун Кларк быў лагер Kanoe 1806,” Billings Gazette, 27 красавіка 2014 года. Першая фізічная сувязь у штаце Айдаха з Люісам і Кларкам у пекле “Каньён”, “Заданне, 6 мая 2008 года.

Сі Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, “Форт Льюіса і Кларка Рок”, лакалітэт (частка 3 ад 3) ліпеня 2010 года.

xii “Спадарожнік Насы будзе шукаць Льюіса і Кларка,” USA Today Здароўе і навука, 20.09.2001

xiii “Доктар Уілсан атрымлівае прэмію Котэра за 2011 год”, Нацыянальны гістарычны сайт Форта Ванкувера, 4 красавіка 2011 г.,

xiv “Інсайдэр: пажар на шчасце”, археалогія 59, вып. 1, (студзень / люты 2006 г.)

xv Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, Джо Елка, Марка Джардзіна, “Археалагічнае дыстанцыйнае зандзіраванне: пошук Форта-Кэтсапа з космасу” 30 ліпеня 2002 г., сервер тэхнічных справаздач Nasa.

xvi Леанард Дэвід, “Lewis & Clark Revisited: Archaeology Satellite Arheology Expands The минулага”, GeoCommunity, Jan 2002,

xvii Алекс Філіп, «Партнёр GCS і лічбавы глобус па праекце геасістэмы Льюіса і Кларка», часопіс «Напрамкі», 23 красавіка 2003 г.

xviii Марка Дж. Джардзіна, “Гісторыя ўкладаў дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання НАСА ў археалогію”, Часопіс археалагічнай навукі, 38 (2011) 2003-2009.

xix Fresonke і, Spence, 240.

Магчымыя здымкі, якія могуць быць уключаны ў розныя пункты артыкула.

Landsat 5 і чорна-белыя гістарычныя аэрафотаздымкі са сцежкай Льюіса і Кларка. Сумесь малюнкаў паказвае змены ў рацэ Місуры каля нацыянальнага прытулку для дзікай прыроды Дэсота на поўнач ад Амахі. КРЕДИТ ІМІДЖ: Даследаванні GCS

Адна з самых ранніх існуючых фотаздымкаў Вясёлкавага вадаспаду, якая займала другое месца па вышыні, толькі Вялікі вадаспад з пяці серый у гэтай частцы ракі. Такое меркаванне адлюстроўвае некрануты аспект краіны, бо ён, напэўна, з'явіўся ў 1805-6 гг. (Гістарычнае таварыства Мантаны.)

Гэтая выява Вясёлкавага вадаспаду, зробленая ў 1944 годзе, рэзка кантрастуе з вышэйзгаданай. Недалёка ад патоку знаходзіцца плаціна Мантанскай электрастанцыі. У летнія і засушлівыя месяцы года значна менш вады паступае над падзеннямі, чым паказана тут, і вялікія ўчасткі каменнага выступу падзення агаляюцца і пазбаўлены прыгажосці белай, падаючай вады. (Мантанская энергетычная кампанія (1944).)

Калі Райан Дам вылучае мала вады, на заднім плане Вялікі вадаспад сціхае. (Служба нацыянальнага парку (Appleman, 1964 г.))

Льюіс і Кларк, агляд гістарычных помнікаў і будынкаў, служба нацыянальнага парку