315 parakeets, parrots, cockatoos, Lori, loryketav, macaws, lovebirds, budgies, – a diverse group; but they are so united in their diagnostic features that they are recognizable at first sight as the terms of the order and some & # 39; and. They Var & # 39; iruyutstsa in size from small parrots, dwarf parrots in the region of Papua and 3.5-inch long tailed arches of the Amazon jungle. They differ in the form of fatty African Lovebird and the South American Amazon to slim Laurie dikakrylyh cockatoo Avstralamalayskaga region. Coloring does not bring results in a sentence, but their body is usually a solid green, yellow, red, white or black, with contrasting patches of red, yellow or blue on the head, wings and tail.
Defining characteristics of a & # 39 is a large head and short neck, and especially the strongly curved, wounded bill. No less important structural feature with a & # 39 are strong, grasping in the parrot legs with two toes in front and two behind. The parrots wide croup at the base of the bill, through which the nostrils open and in which there are a lot of birds. Their little eyes are often bordered with spots of bare skin, especially in the larger species. They are quite rare plumage a powder, scattered on it.
Parrots – a distinctive ancient group, which guarantees its ordinal rank. They demonstrate some commitment to the anatomy and habits as a pigeon, and a cuckoo. On the & # 39; As a matter of fact the tree birds, their minerals are bad. The earliest so far discovered miotsenavaga age, less than 15 million years ago. These parrots show earlier were widespread in the temperate latitudes than they are today, extending to the north almost to Canada, North America, France and Europe.
The current distribution of parrots – panterapichnae. They are found in all the lands of southern hemispheres & # 39; I, with the exception of the southern edge of Africa, and the more remote islands of the Pacific Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere & # 39; and they now reach northern Mexico (the central part of the United States until recently) in the New World, and south-east Asia in the Old. Parrots are divided into six main groups, which are sometimes assigned to the family title, but the structural differences between them are so small that most students today assigns a substring at best.
Although they have never been domesticated in the sense that the chickens, ducks and pigeons there are probably more species of parrots, tamed and bred in captivity, than any other group of birds. Primitive tribes have kept them as pets since ancient times. Talking African gray parrot is mentioned in the ancient Greek and Roman writings. parrot attractiveness is partly aesthetic, partly anthropomorphic. In combination with their attractive colors and the ease with which they are tamed and kept in captivity, it is their intensely human traits that mimic the human voice, showing affection for each other, react to flattery and used his legs almost like a hand. No other bird does not keep the food with one foot and bites off pieces, as much as eating a sandwich. Parrots are extremely durable. How long the birds living in the wild, where natural enemies take his confession, is not known, but people live in captivity up to 50 years, and one was reported to have reached 80 years.
Parrots develop the ability to imitate only in captivity. In the wild, they galavakruzhanyya birds that scream or fall or Twitter, depending on their size, and have a poor range of vocal expression. However, in captivity, they learn to imitate all sorts of sounds, some types are better than others. The African gray parrot is one of the best facial expressions, followed closely go green amazon Central and South America. Larger and smaller species are not so good. Cockatoos and macaws can learn a phrase or two, and little budgies and parrots can be taught to whistle a melody when enough patience.
Although the Parrot lovers will cite examples proving the opposite, talking parrots do not have any idea about what they are saying. Often it required little imagination to put the relevant words that they utter. Parrots learn best when young and more repeat simple sounds that they hear most often with little choice or selectivity. During construction of the house in the next section of young yellow head Amazon was on the bag. Zaintryguyuchy sound fasteners handsaws, the bird made it a favorite subject when your vocabulary. My friend soon tired of hearing how carpenters whole day see and give the bird in the zoo.
In the 1930s, parrot lovers was a heavy blow when it was discovered that parrots suffering from a viral disease, originally called psitakozam that they can pass on to people, sometimes virulent form. To combat the disease prohibits the importation of wild plants, and the movement of parrots in the cells affected by the sur & # 39; oznay failure. Later, researchers found that "papugaynaya fever" was found in almost all birds, including pet birds and pigeons, and the disease is now more appropriately called psittacosis. antytoksiny and antibiotics, which greatly reduces the severity of virulent strains, and fear of the disease is now overcome have been developed. Parrots again gain the advantage in the form of cell-birds, especially young budgies, are now bred in white and yellow, far from the blues and greens of their wild Australian patomnikav.
Kings of the family parrot to the & # 39 are 15 whimsical Macaws living in tropical forests from Mexico south through Central and South America. One of the largest and most beautiful – red and green macaw found from Panama to Bolivia. At full development only the tail length of more than two feet. Slightly smaller hyacinth macaw, which is highly prized parrot lovers for their excellent color, lives only in the spaces of the Brazilian jungle. The most common macaws in zoos – scarlet macaw blue and golden macaw. The second type, widely distributed from Mexico to the south – a military macaw, all green with a red forehead. Ari usually travel in pairs. Because these magnificent birds fly, viskayuchy on strong and swift wings of the high space of native jungle, they become much more spectacular view than their domesticated counterparts at the zoo, and none of them does not forget. Other group members less; all have been finished tails.
New World parrots
Perhaps the most famous parrots of the New World with the & # 39 are the 25 or so species of the Amazon, which are often found in the form of avian cells. This beautiful green parrot with short square or rounded tails, most of which are marked in yellow, red or blue. One of the largest, with a yellow head Amazon, one of the best American parrots. Other Amazons, which are usually found in cells – a yellow and red, because one of the yellow, and the other with a red forehead. One of the youngest – 10-inch Amazon with white paws, a white forehead, bright red bloom with red stakes and the wing of a man.
there are horses that are smaller and more slender Among the less familiar groups of New World parrots than Amazon, and have a long, pointed tail. The most striking in this group with a & # 39 Gold is part of Brazil. It also classified the only parrot, who was born in the US, recently extinct Caroline Parachute, small parrot length of about 12 inches with a yellowish-green body, long pointed tail and orange-yellow head.
In the early 19th century Carolina Railings Var & # 39; Irawan from North Dakota and south central New York to eastern Texas and Florida and was abundant in the densely lesapadobnyh lowlands of the Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic coast. Killed sports and deepen its control on fruit and cereals, parrots flock had the unfortunate habit of soaring with curiosity and concern for the felled bird, the hunter often could kill them all. They have become extremely rare in 1900. The latter were seen in the Florida Everglades in the early 1920s. In the 19th century, they are usually stored in a cell of cells, but they have never been successfully grown in captivity, and species disappear before it was possible to make a determined effort to save it.
The size and shape similar to the Amazon – an African gray parrot, which enjoys the highest price among parrots birds among traders because of its mimetic skill. This gray red bird is at home in the tropical forests of the Congo from the Gold Coast to Kenya and Tangayki. Like many smaller parrots in the wild, it is usually seen in a shout, chatter of flocks flying over the treetops by bullets. In West Africa it causes significant damage to grain.
Lovebirds – a group of small, heavy tsyalestyh, Old World parrots that are most developed in Africa and Madagascar. They are highly valued as a bird-cage, in part because of their attractive colors, partly human traits like one single company. The cage bird sitting huddled on the clock, giving every evidence of affection for each other. In the wild, lovebirds usually travel in large flocks, and often damage crops. Most of the sexes is similar, but in the lush elektrusav on the islands of South Pacific floor flooring so different in color (bright green males, females soft maroon), that once they were considered different species.
These parrots – a widespread group of Old World with the center in the Indo-Malayan region. In most of these small parrots have long pointed tails. Many live in areas of cultural and eating grains, and fruits. They travel in large reeds and often feed on the ground. The most famous of the group & # 39 is wavy parrot from Australia, is now popular as a bird cell. Amazing group – hanging parrots, tiny green birds found from India to the Philippines, who sleep at night, hanging upside down from a chicken.
Another distinct group of Australian and Malaysian parrots consists of 16 cockatoos, which differ from other parrots that have a crest of long pointed feathers that they can be raised and lowered at will. Most beautiful white bird size, often they are washed and stained with bayonets or yellow, and some color crest varies. Wild cockatoo – a noisy fast birds that travel in small loose flocks on the tops of trees and akunyatstsa open extremities, where they are noticeably stand out against the dark foliage. White cockatoo in the Solomon Islands was a familiar American birds during the Great Patriotic War, and the people were as pets alive. Marine outfit bee taught one bird monotonously repeating, "Bledsoe said yes," to the delight of the army and the irritation of the imperial executive officer Mr. Bledsoe. Among ordinary white cockatoos in zoos can be found gray cockatoo with its bright yellow crown and pink-shaded Cockatoo Leadbeater.
The largest of the & # 39 is a 31-inch black cockatoo New Guinea, which is a huge curved bill ends on a long and sharp point. With him and Black Cockatoos crack digs meat from solid shell that the person has to break the stone. In contrast to the white cockatoo, black cockatoo – lonely bird, which is usually seen alone or in small groups of two or three in the tops of tall trees of the jungle. Unlike other cockatoo, black cockatoo has a bare face, and his cheeks vary from pink to red with a bird feeling.
Lori and Loryket
In the "Lori" and larykety Australian field length of 6 to 15 centimeters, brilliantly colored in greens, blues, reds and yellows, languages ablyamovvayutstsa using excellent fringe for pressing nectar and fruit juices. Unlike other birds, which feed on nectar-bearing flower nectar with thin tubular bills, lorytsy razdushvayuts flowers beaks and spread on a squeezed juice language. A common bird on coconut plantations on the islands of the South Sea Islands – is painted, or Rainbow, Loryket, slender birds with long tails, which makes its way into many geographical races, each population of the island is somewhat different in color and size. Large flocks of these birds twittering and chatter click on the tops of trees and climbing palms trees, as in many bright colors. Just all of a sudden they will fly again with a great cover of the wings, still balbatayuchy.
The smallest of the family – a tiny psittaculirostris length of 3 to 5 inches, six species whose Var & # 39; iruyutstsa from New Guinea to the east through New Britain and the Solomon. These goats woodpecker are smaller than parrots. They crawl on the trunks and large limbs of forest trees, which inflated the insects from the bark cracks. They have a hard woodpeckers like tails with spiny tips, and long claws that cling to the bark. They are not as prevalent and sweet, like most other parrots, and their quiet and hard to find in the persecution of the jungle. They have never been successfully kept in captivity.
The most strange and indulgent of all parrots – New Zealand kakapo, parrot or Sava. This is a very rare bird is endangered representatives of New Zealand predators since lost the power of flight. Large parrot length of about 20 centimeters, his soft feather pre-soaked with green, yellow, brown and black. A lot at night he hides during the day in holes in the rocks and under the roots of trees, and at night goes to food. He quickly runs through the land, and if in a hurry, often spreads its wings. He climbs into the trees on fruit and nectar, and then slide to the ground. His longest recorded glide about 90 yards. In the forest environment, he often visits his ways and trails, discovering the roots and vegetation in its path. It is believed that kakapo became extinct on the North Island, but recently it was reported that a wide beech forests there were some in the South Island.
Kea and Kaka
Evenly and abnormal two other parrots in New Zealand, Kea and Kaka, both fairly large bird the size of a crow, brownish-green color, variously marked with red and yellow. Kay – a mountainous form that lives above the tree line in alpine areas of the South Island, where it nests in cracks Crane and under rocks. In the summer he lives on a regular diet of parrots with fruits and buds, supplemented by insects, worms and pears. In winter it descends to a lower level where it becomes musorshchykam and acquired nasty habit of pecking at the backs of live sheep fat their kidneys. To stop the killing of sheep, the bounty has been put on Keasa and 8 yardny period they paid almost 30 000. This had little effect on their numbers, which obviously increased due to abundant supply. Removal of all rubbish sheep after the cut has been found more effective way to deal with them.
A close relative of Kea, Kaka, lives in the forests of the low level on both islands. This is a noisy bird that is usually seen in flocks. He lives on fruits and nectars, and Shcherbina digs rotten wood with its powerful beak.
Parrots surprisingly monotonous in their nesting habits. Eggs parrots pretty white, round, always white and rather glossy. Number masonry var & # 39; iruetstsa 1 in some large species to 9 or 10 in some smaller and averages from 3 to 5. Most parrots – nests within the cavity and typically lie in the unopened aperture on the tree. Some nest in burrows in the ground, some in rock crevices. Dwarf parrots and a few other small Australian species dig nests in the homes of termites. Incubation is usually both sexes; several kinds of one female. Usually young hatch naked, but soon grow down coats, making them look incredibly similar to sons. Little is known about their incubation period, but at a small parapet, they are about 17 to 20 days. Both sexes feed the young by regurgitation as doves.
Gray Argentina chest nest colonially in huge structures built of branches, tall trees, where each pair of birds has its own private office. Birds use these huge nests as dormitories throughout the year and added to them from year to year, while the cargo load or a few sprigs of not destroying the bearing industry. Other birds, such as ducks trees, sometimes occupy empty nests in these colonies, along with parrots, and once in a while possums move and obviously live in peace with them.