The contribution of archeology in the trail of Lewis and Clark

Archeology: SUPPORT FOR Leavis and Clark

Archeology faced with special problems in determining the campsites on the trail, but has benefited from recent advances in technology. In contrast to the field of the Civil War battlefield or visit the pre-historic home track, the expedition route gives very little evidence.
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Lewis and Clark campsites difficult to confirm because the researchers have left few traces. In 2004, the authors of “Lewis and Clark”, “Heritage Memories” and “New Perspective” had a dark look at the archaeological role in bitsenale Lewis and Clark. Ya
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This article draws a vivid picture of reviewing the literature up to the present time to explore some of the relatively recent developments in the field of archeology. It focuses on areas in Montana, Idaho, Oregon and the Columbia River Basin in Washington Camp station.
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It will also put forward new scientific methods used to search for campsites, and explore how these findings have helped to save some of these sites from destruction.
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National Park Service has always supported archaeological research and in favor of maintaining the trails. Their website lists the efforts of the Commission of Lewis and Clark Trail, Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Inc.
and other public and private organizations which attempt to find and keep track of. Modern Americans can only see a few places on the trail as they saw the Lewis and Clark. On the NPS website has photos that show more pristine views of many sites.
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NPS lists sites in Montana and other states, such as site 32, Fort Mandan and 34, Fort Klatsap of archaeological significance. ii
On the & # 39; archaeological research facilities in Montana include:
Area 3 Lemchen-pass; Site 4, Lolo Trail; Site14, State Park Rock Beaverhead Rock; Stage 15, pass Bozeman; Area 16, in the Buffalo jump Arrow Creek; 17 playground, camp, disappointment; Playground 18 joint Maryyas and Missouri rivers; Area 19 Gate mountains; Site 20, Great Falls; Site 21, Lewis and Clark; Site 22, the Lewis fight Blekfet site; Playground 23, Upper Missouri River breaks national monument; Area 24, Pompey and pillar; Playground 25 Rocks Horses; Site 26, Ross Hall; Platform 27, three forks of Missouri; and the site of 28, and leisure travelers. iii

Buffalo Jump, leisure travelers and the bottom of the Great Falls were particularly useful for archaeologists.

Jump buyfalav in Arrow Creek

In a beautiful section of “White Cliffs”, which took place in Missouri, the expedition “Lewis” and “Clark” probably were the first US citizens, who saw and recorded the buffalo jump site, where were still dead animals. 29 mine in 1805 during the Lewis and Clark expedition occurred this leap. He was on the north side of the base 120 along the Missouri-futovay rocks that came up almost to the water’s edge. Men watched and smelled the carcasses of more than 100 dead and rotting buffaloes, which are devoured by wolves.

Place was discovered in 1963 as a group 24CH240 Interdepartmental Program for the archaeological rescue Missouri basin, which conducted a survey of places in this part of the river. rescue team found only two bone fragments, some others of whom also watched a private owner. IV

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traveler Rest

On vacation “Traveler” in the 1990s, aerial infrared photography showed evidence of ring caps. Historical research coincided with the coordinates of latitude and longitude recorded by Lewis and Clark in the very place Lola Creek. Dan Hall and other equipment used magnetometers to find changes in the magnetic properties of the soil. They also found Vaughn cracked rock, and charcoal solid lead puddle. These findings suggest that this place is exposed to strong heat, believed to be a result of a large military cook, cooking. They knew that the expedition had melted their empty cans with lead powder to make musket balls, thereby puddle of lead.

Sites of other countries, which are discussed in this article include sites 32, Fort Mandan and 34, Fort Klatsap. Later, archaeologists have found signs that the trench was dug 300 meters from the firing zone, which corresponds to the requirements of the army at the time, regulating the location of toilets. vyparshchyka mercury tests confirmed the presence of mercury in the trench, and not in the surrounding soil. In his journal, Lewis noted that at least two men were sick at this point travel and receive medicines that contain a sufficient amount of mercury, which would pass through the body and left in place. v These pills are known as “Dr. Rush” were sixty percent of mercury, which is not decomposed.

These findings are significant because the area was surrounded by the living area, which is growing rapidly, and camping was recognized as one of the most endangered historic places in the nation in 1999. This popularity has helped to attract a grant fund Melanie Richard King, which allowed the purchase of 15 hectares is considered the heart of the camping. vi

Lower portage Big Falls

In the 1990s on the site of the lower body of water large bodies of water of the Missouri River in Montana Dr. Ken Karsmiski I studied one of the areas marked by the remains of 12 fires. Researchers & # 39; Magazines tell us about 12 days in this camp. Three fires are equally spaced in a line that involves organized camping were found. Arheamagnitnyya charred remains of dates that correspond to the occupation of Lewis and Clark.

They also radiocarbon dated with carved wooden stakes disclosed in the vertical position in the soil to 1810 ± 40, and a portion of the bones of bison to 1810 ± 50. Party members “C” D produced a large amount of the dried fish, meat and pemmikanav (dried meat bison mixed with fat), while in the camp at Big Falls. Karsmizki added the fifth spot at which he hoped to obtain the remains of a collapsible boat with an iron frame, which the party has refused top of a large waterfall, because they lacked materials – pine tar and needles for sewing together – it is necessary for the manufacture of utensils waterproof. vii

Articles about campsites in archeology We continued to work include a search of the elusive iron boats, canoes Elavston camp, Fort Mandan area in North Dakota and the search for Camp Wood / Camp Dzyuba, near St. Louis, St. Louis. While the search for iron ship Ken Karsmizki exciting and receiving letters to the editor, in this article it is too involved. Assistance received from the Great Falls of NASA, will be discussed later.

Canoeing Elavston camp should be revised due to recent events. Article by Ken Karsmizki in WPO , Vol. 21 no. 4 “Search hidden, some effort to find the expedition camp”, with the & # 39; is a compelling discussion of the difficulties faced archaeologists in 1995. It is also an excellent overview of archeology.

The lack of concrete facts in notebooks, changing the course of rivers, historical fires and floods, poorly drawn maps and erosion, the recent invasion of the land and the unreliability of local informants were problems in all archaeological sites, not to mention the fact. resources and funding.

Despite the problems, the author is optimistic that archeology eventually pulled from the scope of the historical facts of history and folklore, and justify them in material reality. viii

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Canoe Camp Elavston

The camp on the island of Yelaston River – a place that is being investigated as a possible site of the camp by canoe kayak in July 1806. Archaeologist Tom Rust began research on the island in 2011, when historian and cartographer Ralph Sonders Rust convinced that he has placed the canoe seat. His study of the original maps, historic photographs and aerial photographs enabled him to make sure that his calculations found a place at eight other sites were considered for the camp along the 12-mile mile River between Columbus and Park City.

Rust explore the island using magnetometers and meters of soil sustainability to assess violations and soil compaction. The hope was that the survey will be able to find an old fireplace, toilet, place the head, and even the way in which men are moved by camping. Their efforts were rewarded when they had a few strokes of the metal detector and found perfectly round lead ball, which is believed to have been on a working day. Isotopic analysis was consistent with the artifact from vacation travelers. They also found mercury deposit in the wells, which corresponded to what was found in the vacation traveler. Buckle and bone, expressed in the same field at the same depth, and some brought near what looked like fire him, tested with an acceptable date range, were further proof that it was a camp canoe.

This site is interesting for the environment, as the river Elavston greatly moved. Fortunately, when the river was moving, even forming a new channel, and then bouncing back, the island seems to be spared from destruction by flood waters, which could wash away any evidence of the expedition. ix

Bar navel bar

After returning home in May 1806 the Lewis and Clark Expedition camped near Kami, waiting, when the snow melts in the mountains Bitterta. Meryvater Lewis on this route sent Sergeant John Ordeuya and two other people to the Snake River to trade salmon with “Nez Perce” – the food necessary for their passage through the mountains. Ordeuey wrote about the trip in their magazine. “We have come a long house and down the hills in the worst we’ve ever seen, as the broken road”, – stated in the materials of the magazine. And on their arrival in the village: “For a long time they invited us spread robes, so we sat and faced us with fried salmon and some of their white bread, which they called & # 39; uppah & # 39; the length of a hundred feet or twenty feet wide, and all in one. ”

State archaeologist Ken Reid with Idaho State Historical Society led project to investigate in Cougar Rapids Bar. They found a groove lodges and slope, where they are likely to wait until the fish was prepared. Using high-tech tools to look below the surface, Dr. Reid’s team reflected the rim of an apartment building and hearths or fireplaces, which ran down the middle. Dr. Reid and his team dug a small test pit in the hearth and picked up the mound on one side of the house, and found the artifacts – carbon dated to the early 1800s. They also found a half blue glass ball, two brass taps and a tiny arrow. These data in conjunction with a description of a village in Ordway magazine, as well as other studies of possible ways to Snake River make Dr. Reed is very sure that this is where Ordeuey and his men stayed two nights Trading salmon. x

Sites Rock Fort and Camp station, as well as Fort Klatsap on the far western part of the trail also had new development. Proven methodology Karsmizki – is long laborious process of analysis charts and magazines, geophysical surveys and interpretation of test sites and, if it is to justify the wide excavation and laboratory analyzes. This analysis includes dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating, dating arheamagnitnyya, lead isotope analysis and faunal analysis in many laboratories in the US and Canada. This finding helped NASA and the US Air Force.

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Rock fortress

In an interview with & # 39; nd correspondent John Komptanu Oregon in July 2010. Ken Karsmiski spoke about his research in the Rock Fort and NASA help in this project. He pointed out that Discovery housing latitude calculations were not accurate, and maps of the same area were different. He said: “They (with D) wrote a million words in their journals, but nine journalists see everything differently, especially at a distance people are changing their views on the environmental features The same thing happened everywhere they went..” Karsmizki should It was to see the course map and look at the details. NASA has offered to help with four satellites use sensors to create maps The Dalles, that they might impose on the Lewis and Clark map. Incidentally, this Mill Creek and the bank of the Columbia River. They then used ground penetrating radar in and put thirty-six holes in the lattice in the region in which they considered there. If it is not, they have committed themselves to reducing the three, because Clark wrote that they were in artificial fort established by stone walls, and they were afraid to attack. The area was covered grobnay surface and had seven feet on top of the historical surface. On the windowsill, they were able to find the dog’s skull and leather strips.

Unfortunately, in the Columbia River there is only one site Rock Fort, which is no longer under water because of dams. It is located in Dali, near the underpass Union Street and is in state hands. It was a good place because it was not a single building, and napavnyalnae coating may retain it for excavation. xi

NASA satellite images connect precisely with detailed historical maps to help find Karsmizkam camping. In some cases, technology can reduce the potential area of ​​several square miles up to ten hectares. Control of the application of Earth Sciences, NASA has provided images Karsmizki and his team. Mark Giardini, Acting Deputy Director ESAD in Stennis, said that the NASA scientists could create a 360-degree view of the area where the traveling researchers and archaeologists can get the same kind as that of aircraft. Color is very important when looking for historical places. For example, a small difference in the shade of a large wheat field may indicate a place outpost. xii

Station Camp Fort Vancouver

Opening the case of Lewis and Clark passed here only 10 days. Historians have called the place “Station Camp”, because the main sightseeing station Lieutenant William Clark was a detailed and accurate map of the mouth of the Columbia River. and vicinity. Dr. Wilson is the principal investigator, included in research and development of various scientific methods to establish the chronology of the site and obtain additional information from the artifacts, including carbon-14 dating, ground penetrating radar, magnetometers analysis and isotopic analyzes. Dr. Wilson – archaeologist regional department of the National Park Service in the western region of the Pacific, based at the National historic site of Fort Vancouver. He was also the main link with the Indian tribes that have pretendentsyi the site of Central Village. For his work he was awarded the John Kotera. John Kotter was one of the founding fathers of historical archeology in the United States. xiii

His work was important for the eco-footprints, because his research formed the basis for the interpretation of the park development on Station Camp / Middle Village Village and the project, which involved the nation Chinook, Washington, and the National Park Service. He also attracted students and the public, thereby raising awareness of the importance of the site for the history.
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Fort Klatsap

Fort Klatsop, in the Columbia River about five miles south of the modern Astoria, was the winter camp 1805 33rd housing opening and the first tangible evidence of the United States on the Pacific coast in the words of Steven Beckham the historical Lewis and Clark College. Fort became critical to US claims to the region.

The original settlement a little more than three months, it was recorded that may burn in the 1850s to make way for the Pioneer Garden. In 1955, the local community has built a replica of Fort Klatsapa (named after the local tribe), to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the expedition. In 2005, Fort Klatsap again burned down just a month before the on-site will be scheduled two-year celebration of Lewis and Clark.

Federal arson investigation found that the restored Fort Klatsop was the victim of an accidental fire, which started with a traveling angle of the working chamber. Investigators can forgive instantly regarded archeology as suspects. Although some excavations were carried out on the site of the camp in 1950, the destruction of replica given archaeologists of the National Park Service to Doug Wilson opportunity properly to excavate this site with the use of modern methods, including remote sensing. His crew has already identified about 20 percent of the site without disturbing the concrete foundation of the reconstructed fort, including several deep holes filled with charcoal, the possible remains of dug wells for the fortress. “We have turned this tragedy into a real possibility,” – said Wilson. xiv

NASA also participated in this site. Satellite data includes a 30-meter Mapper Landsat Thematic and 1 meter IKONOS data space way xv

NASA Changing the face of the West, and archaeological research

The purpose of NASA scientists and other researchers working on a special two-year project was the shooting of remote sensing satellites and airplanes to create accurate three-dimensional maps and visualization of the Lewis and Clark campsites road and stops, as well as to produce a collection of satellite images available online. Акрамя археалагічных даследаванняў, задачы па кіраванні ландшафтам ўключаюць ацэнку ўздзеяння рэжымаў парушэння пажараў на дзікіх землях на экасістэмы, маніторынг змены забалочаных участкаў, вымярэнне гарадской экспансіі, адсочванне шкодных і інвазівных пустазелля, а таксама адлюстраванне вегетатыўнай мазаікі для ключавых лагераў Люіса і Кларка, такіх як Форт Клатсоп ( зіма 1805-1806).

Гэты праект быў распрацаваны на падставе пагаднення NASA Space Space, у якім удзельнічалі таленты кампаніі GCS Research, кампаніі па геаграфічных прасторах інфармацыйных тэхналогій у Місуле, штат Мантана і TechLink Center of State University (MSU). “Пастаяннае значэнне экспедыцыі Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery складаецца ў часопісах і картах, якія яны стваралі. Яны ўяўляюць сабой здымак з прыроднай гісторыі Паўночнай Амерыкі дзвесце гадоў таму. Наборы дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання NASA ўяўляюць сабой яшчэ адзін здымак у час “, – сказаў Уэстон, менеджэр тэхналогій MSU TechLink Center. xvi

У 2003 годзе NASA, GCS Research і яго тэхналагічныя партнёры будавалі адзін з этапаў геасістэмы Lewis і Clark, які ўключае ў сябе геабазічную базу дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання камбінаваных актываў з розных існуючых геапрасторальных рэсурсаў для Lewis і Clark Trail. Выявы QuickGird DigitalGlobe былі ўключаны ў растравы каталог Lewis and Clark. xvii

стар 6

Яшчэ адным прадуктам, распрацаваным падчас праекта Льюіса і Кларка, стала віртуальная і дакладная рэндэрынг некалькіх гістарычных сайтаў Корпуса Адкрыццяў, асабліва Форт-Клатсап. Гэтыя віртуальныя прадукты пашыраюць навуковыя даследаванні і служаць для навучання і інфармавання насельніцтва пра праект і яго вынікі. Па заканчэнні праекта былі апрацаваны трыццаць розных набораў дадзеных дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання космасу NASA. Гіперспектральныя дадзеныя адкрываюць новыя магчымасці для будучых археалагічных адкрыццяў. Гіперспектральная тамаграфія дзеліць спектр на значна больш дыяпазонаў, чым можа выявіць чалавечае вока. Мэтай гіперспектральнай візуалізацыі з'яўляецца атрыманне спектру для кожнага пікселя ў выяве сцэны з мэтай пошуку аб'ектаў, ідэнтыфікацыі матэрыялаў альбо выяўлення працэсаў.

Тэхналогія дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання і аналіз малюнкаў зараз перажываюць глыбокі зрух у акцэнтах ад шырокай класіфікацыі да выяўлення, ідэнтыфікацыі і стану канкрэтных матэрыялаў, як арганічных, так і неарганічных.

Гэтыя новыя тэхналогіі прапануюць археолагам яшчэ больш магчымасцей для даследаванняў і аналізу. Адной з магчымых абласцей, дзе гіперспектральныя дадзеныя могуць быць вельмі каштоўнымі, з'яўляецца фітаархеалогія, якая вызначаецца як аналіз узаемасувязі паміж расліннасцю і археалогіяй. Тры канкрэтныя вобласці фітаархеалогіі могуць атрымаць вялікую карысць ад гіперспектральных малюнкаў:

1) выяўленне канкрэтных відаў раслін, якія звязаны з археалагічнымі помнікамі;

2) Параўнальная фізіялогія раслін або вызначэнне стрэсу ці энергіі раслін; and

3) Стварэнне індэкса зменлівасці расліннасці. xviii

Падарожнікі, якія ідуць за Корпусам Адкрыцця, шукаюць вопыту. Фрэсанк і Спенс у Льюіса і Кларка, Спадчыны, Успаміны і Новая перспектыва гэта выдатна выказваюць. “Яны не прыязджаюць у адзін турыстычны пункт; замест гэтага яны сустракаюць зусім новы ландшафт, які не відаць з бруёў або чатырохпалосных дарог … Услед за капітанамі” – асабістае падарожжа адкрыццяў, турыстычная адысея, якая злучае ландшафт. і гісторыя, апісаная ў часопісах Льюіса і Кларка “. xix

Цяпер праз шмат гадоў след зноў ацэньваюць прыгажосць і дзіва, якія ў ім убачылі Льюіс і Кларк. Як спадзяваўся Кен Карсміскі ў сваім артыкуле 1995 года для “Мы працягваліся”, археалагічныя даследаванні адыгралі важную ролю ў захаванні слядоў шляхам вызначэння кемпінгаў і прадастаўлення навуковых доказаў іх матэрыяльнага існавання. Археолагі не толькі прасунулі прафесію гістарычнай археалогіі пры дапамозе найноўшых тэхналогій і NASA, але і дапамаглі Нацыянальнай паркавай службе і шматлікім іншым дзяржаўным і прыватным арганізацыям вярнуць след для наступных пакаленняў следчых даследчыкаў.

I Kris Fresonke and Mark Spence, Lewis and Clark, Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives, (Берклі, Лос-Анджэлес, Лондан: University of California Press, 2004) 247.

ii Люіс і Кларк, агляд гістарычных месцаў і будынкаў, служба нацыянальнага парку http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/lewisandclark/site.htm

iii Мантанская археалогія: праект публічнай кнігі па археалогіі Мантаны, Льюіса, Кларка і археалогіі, 7 лютага 2009 г. (Крыніца: Лекцыі доктара Ды Тэйлара; т. 3, археалогія № 2 у Мантане ” Кароткая гісторыя археалогіі Мантаны, “)

iv Тамсама.

v Kathleen A. Dah, “Археалогія падарожнікаў”, “Trail Watch”, “Акадэмічны вэб-часопіс”, які вывучае інтэрпрэтацыю экспедыцыі Люіса і Кларка і двухгадовы юбілей у музеі, гістарычныя месцы, інтэрпрэтацыйныя цэнтры і папулярныя сродкі масавай інфармацыі.

vi Шэры Дэўлін, “Даследчыкі дакладна вызначылі месца падарожнікаў для адпачынку – Кемпінг Льюіса і Кларка быў няправільна адлюстраваны гады таму”, Місульян, студзень26, 2004.

vii Джэсіка Э. Сарачэні, “Пошук Льюіса і Кларка”, Археалогія 51, вып. 1, (студзень / люты 1998 г.)

старонка 7

viii Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, “Пошук нябачнага: некаторыя намаганні, каб знайсці экспедыцыйныя лагеры”, мы працягваліся 21, вып. 4 (лістапад 1995 г.): 4-12.

ix Brett French: “Доказы сцвярджаюць, што на востраве Йеллоустоун Кларк быў лагер Kanoe 1806,” Billings Gazette, 27 красавіка 2014 года. Першая фізічная сувязь у штаце Айдаха з Люісам і Кларкам у пекле “Каньён”, “Заданне KTVB.com, 6 мая 2008 года.

Сі Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, “Форт Льюіса і Кларка Рок”, лакалітэт (частка 3 ад 3) ліпеня 2010 года.

xii “Спадарожнік Насы будзе шукаць Льюіса і Кларка,” USA Today Здароўе і навука, 20.09.2001

xiii “Доктар Уілсан атрымлівае прэмію Котэра за 2011 год”, Нацыянальны гістарычны сайт Форта Ванкувера, 4 красавіка 2011 г., http://www.nps.gov/fova/learn/news/cotteraward2011.htm

xiv “Інсайдэр: пажар на шчасце”, археалогія 59, вып. 1, (студзень / люты 2006 г.)

xv Кеннет У. Карсмізкі, Джо Елка, Марка Джардзіна, “Археалагічнае дыстанцыйнае зандзіраванне: пошук Форта-Кэтсапа з космасу” 30 ліпеня 2002 г., сервер тэхнічных справаздач Nasa.

xvi Леанард Дэвід, “Lewis & Clark Revisited: Archaeology Satellite Arheology Expands The минулага”, GeoCommunity, Jan 2002,

xvii Алекс Філіп, «Партнёр GCS і лічбавы глобус па праекце геасістэмы Льюіса і Кларка», часопіс «Напрамкі», 23 красавіка 2003 г.

xviii Марка Дж. Джардзіна, “Гісторыя ўкладаў дыстанцыйнага зандзіравання НАСА ў археалогію”, Часопіс археалагічнай навукі, 38 (2011) 2003-2009.

xix Fresonke і, Spence, 240.

Магчымыя здымкі, якія могуць быць уключаны ў розныя пункты артыкула.

Landsat 5 і чорна-белыя гістарычныя аэрафотаздымкі са сцежкай Льюіса і Кларка. Сумесь малюнкаў паказвае змены ў рацэ Місуры каля нацыянальнага прытулку для дзікай прыроды Дэсота на поўнач ад Амахі. КРЕДИТ ІМІДЖ: Даследаванні GCS

Адна з самых ранніх існуючых фотаздымкаў Вясёлкавага вадаспаду, якая займала другое месца па вышыні, толькі Вялікі вадаспад з пяці серый у гэтай частцы ракі. Такое меркаванне адлюстроўвае некрануты аспект краіны, бо ён, напэўна, з'явіўся ў 1805-6 гг. (Гістарычнае таварыства Мантаны.)

Гэтая выява Вясёлкавага вадаспаду, зробленая ў 1944 годзе, рэзка кантрастуе з вышэйзгаданай. Недалёка ад патоку знаходзіцца плаціна Мантанскай электрастанцыі. У летнія і засушлівыя месяцы года значна менш вады паступае над падзеннямі, чым паказана тут, і вялікія ўчасткі каменнага выступу падзення агаляюцца і пазбаўлены прыгажосці белай, падаючай вады. (Мантанская энергетычная кампанія (1944).)

Калі Райан Дам вылучае мала вады, на заднім плане Вялікі вадаспад сціхае. (Служба нацыянальнага парку (Appleman, 1964 г.))

Льюіс і Кларк, агляд гістарычных помнікаў і будынкаў, служба нацыянальнага парку


Kai Tak remembered

It’s been a decade since the former Hong Kong International Airport at Kai Tak July 6, 1998 has been closed for business to replace him on an exciting new & # 39; the object, built on reclaimed land at Chek Lap Kok on Lantau Island. Two airports are like chalk and cheese; a futuristic, the second has long been held to sell by date; but there are still many who mourn the death of the old location.
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Many pilots who are willing to recall the adrenaline rush when they fly a plane for instrument guidance system (IGS), just a few hundred feet above densely populated residential house Kavluna, despite the notorious orange and white painted chess.
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If it was in sight and the airplane properly aligned at a height of 206 meters (660 feet) for the emergence of the aircraft through a wide curve required a sharp degree of 47 degrees before to level 46 feet (46 meters) from the threshold of the runway. .
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At night, the unique lighting system is installed accurately at intervals of 400 feet on the roof and goats specially constructed which guide pilots towards the center line of the runway. Since the final approach was very close, the distance between the lamps was reduced to 200 feet.
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The need to use lights to guide pilots thus forced to ban flashing neon signs throughout Hong Kong, to avoid pulling the input of pilots. Weather & # 39; e was often poor; typhoons, micro-explosions and strong side winds added load of pilots, and in many respects Kai Tak was waiting for a big crash.
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Several wrong aircraft ended in the shallow waters of the Gulf Kovlunskaga, and it really was an accident, that no commercial airliner ever descended on a residential area killed Kavluna and did not miss all that uzaratstsa in Lion Rock.
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This is due mainly to the very good aviation skills, excellent control of air traffic and, more precisely, in the early days, a strange element of luck. At the airport, of course, it was the proportion of incidents and many aviation enthusiasts saw the video on “You Tube”, which shows how close the Korean air “747” came to disaster during extreme weather & # 39; and.
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Mr. Kay and Mr. Yes

The history of the airport dates back to 1920 when two entrepreneurs, Sir Ho KAI (prepared by a doctor) and Mr. Au Tack * (the owner of the photographic business), set up Kai Tack Land Investment Company Ltd, to return the land, which they planned to use. to build new houses. The project failed mainly because few people want to live on the land that was still infected mosquitoes.
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Reclaimed area was vacant until it was adopted by the Government. In November 1924 the ship of the Royal Navy’s HMS Pegasus arrived in Victoria Harbor, which had four hydroplane Fairey IIID, which were used for aerial photography. They flew to the air-reconnaissance missions over the world and HIAS Bays, known persecution sad pirates who plundered the navigation on the South China Sea. Sir Reginald Stubs flew one of the planes, and thus became the first governor of Hong Kong, who examined their territory of seaplanes.
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It is obvious that needed a military base in Hong Kong, but in accordance with the Washington Agreement in 1021 the British were forbidden to establish a base in the east of Singapore. The British government has found a solution to open, pabuduyuchy on this site airfield for civil use, which could also be used when visiting fleet vessel.
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In January 1925 the American brave d & # 39; yabal Harry Abbott has received permission to set up a flying school in the place which he called the city a field of Kowloon. The lunar New Year’s Day, he announced the opening of the school, taking into Curtis Jenny firing crackers attached to his wheel.
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But the fireworks failed to ignite, and the audience felt this bad mushroom Shui. His colleague, the Sino-American pilot Henry Yee Young, performed a series of maneuvers before Abbott returned to the air with Richard Earnshaw on board, made a decent parachute. But it all went wrong, and Earnshaw landed in the harbor, tangled in parachute and drowned. A number of incidents went to trial before August Abbott and it broke and was forced to sell his plane.

The Royal Air Force took over the airport March 10, 1927, and except for the Japanese occupation during the war remained in some form until 1993. Initial publication was not popular because of the pungent smells of local nuly (open drain), competed with bacon smell from the factory, located nearby. Sharp Nool continued to welcome the passengers on board the aircraft, which arrived until the last days of the airport.

November 18, 1928 in the harbor crane short sautgemptanskih ship was tied to special moorings in the bay Kovlun. This was the famous Far East, the flight captain groups Cave-Browne-Pechora flying from Singapore to Australia, which later developed into the 205 Squadron.

To pull the plane out of the water it was necessary to build a concrete road moving, and to raise the aircraft on a dry steam valve steam valve was used. Everything began to take shape, and the Legislative Council has allocated money for landscaping and content on a site & # 39. By 1930 the runway was razravnavana and peraasfaltavana and metal hanger was completed to replace the matting structures that are exposed to light. In September, Mr. A J R Moss arrived from London to take over as caretaker airport, after which his assistant Eric Nelson in five years has influenced the development of the airfield.

imperial Us

In 1932, flying club members went into opposition, which forced it to close. Vugan Fowler, a well-known leader of the aviation companies of the Far East, proposed to reform the club, and he became the Far East school of flights with a fleet of aircraft consisting of one author Bird and three cadets Aura. Ten Chinese working in the business, ten Englishmen and was forty-two students of engineering; evidence of how to promote an interest in aviation. After two years, the airport has been further developed with the addition of the sea wall, a fence and a ramp adjacent to Marine Aircraft. job placement for the RAF has also been completed on the east side of the old landing strip, where buildings have been erected on a dirt track that led to the fishing village of Lei Yut Mun. They had a beautiful view over the sandy beach and stood 30 meters above the aerodrome on the ground, where the multi-storey apartment blocks later will prevail against the backdrop of the eastern side of the airport. There were also plans to cover the runway.

In 1928, the British Government and the Hong Kong promised to spend 200 thousand pounds in the Kai Tak transformation into a modern on & # 39; object. In London, the colony is still considered only a second, and up to 1935 civilian tower and offices was constructed to the first fire truck was purchased. March 25, 1929 came the long-awaited first commercial flight, if deviant class Havilland DH 86 G-ACWD Diana “Dorado” from Imperial Airways crept. He led the initial delivery service to Penang and Saigon, which was linked to the UK flight to Australia (Empire Route), which departed from London on March 14. An experienced pilot Imperial Airways Captain John Locke commanded when informed that he saw three sharks basking in the waters of the South China Sea below his plane when he came to the colony. After running through an area known as the Magazine Gap, about 11.30 in the morning before it opened a beautiful view of Victoria Harbor, and is under the & # 39; driving under the squadron aircraft HMS Hermes. In anticipation of the voyage was the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Andrew Kaldekot and 200 VIP-persons, who counted only welcome the crew when the plane stopped. If the plane with & # 39; was the first commercial passenger who has ever landed in Kai Tak, with the & # 39; was the element of surprise. Ung-hey-Lim, captured by an amateur pilot, stuck between 16 Her Majesty’s mail bags after flying his own plane from Kuala Lumpur to Penang, to go on a flight.

The company Imperial Airways DH 86 visited the colony before, when Captain Armstrong flew the aircraft in a number of flights of the previous year. The people of Hong Kong followed the course of these flights for a considerable time, and if the bad out & # 39; e threatened first of them, Armstrong, not wanting to disappoint the people and not the risk of losing valuable contract flew in 1852 miles from Penang in a single day (16 September ). If the route is opened for regular traffic, it has reduced the 34-day sea voyage between England and Hong Kong up to ten days in the air. Later, when an agreement was reached with Siam (now Thailand), shorter route through Bangkok to cut another day and a half way. By the time when Imperial Airways began flying to operate a Class C boats to Singapore route 15000 miles (24140 km) was reduced to 5½ days when DH 86 provided the final link between Singapore and Kai Tak. Today, thanks to the progress made in the establishment of the right to fly shorter routes through Russia, Siberia and China have significantly reduced the distance between London and Hong Kong to about 6000 miles (9856 km), which modern aircraft can overcome without a stop less. than twelve hours.

Between the wars in the Kai Tak landed many famous pioneers of long-distance, even if the regular commercial services began slowly. In 1932, the air east Compagnie Français intended to connect Hong Kong with service Marseille-Saigon, but the plans were stopped. Two years before the Sino-German aviation company owned by Eurasia Aviation Corporation, also proposed route of postal communication between the Kai Tak and Europe, but the idea fell by the wayside, but later on June 29, 1937 extended the service Peiping (Beijing) in -Kanton Hong Kong. using universal Junkers JU-52. Then, August 10, 1938 Air France from Paris arrived in his car trohmatorny Dewoitine 338 F-AQBF “City Ventsyan” six days before to set a new record between Gano and Hong Kong in 3 hours and 20 minutes.

In February 1930 Pan American Airways Juan Trippe has made 45 per cent stake, to create the China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC) in collaboration with the Chinese Ministry of Communications. October 8 they discovered the flight service on the boat, which connects Shanghai, Venhov, Fuzhou, Amoy, Smatav Canton and Hong Kong, using the S-38 Sikorsky. Two years later, they flew along the route twice a week, using amphibians Douglas Dolphin, later representing the Douglas DC-3 with increasing passenger traffic.

Pan Am wanted to connect Hong Kong to its trans-Pacific operations, and April 28, 1937, this was achieved with the arrival of a flying boat Sikorsky S042B (NC16734) “Hong Kong Clipper” in the expanded service from San Francisco and Manila. At that time, the Japanese had already threw part of China and Beijing filed until July. As a result of commercial flights over China became inherently dangerous and fall regularly under fire from the Japanese. CNAC courageously continued the flight, and in 1938, Douglas DC-2 was shot down near Macau, killing all 14 on board. The aircraft was returned to the Kai Tak from barge, refurbished and put into service. In October 1940 and in May 1941, two more DC-2 victims were killed when flying in the service of Chunking-Kunming-Hong Kong. The last prewar Airlines flight took off from Kai Tak December 12, 1941, when the Japanese were preparing to bomb the airport. The British military has declared invalid Hong Kong, and if the enemy invasion began on Monday, December 8, 1941, in the RAF had only three wildebeest Dean Vickery, based at Kai Tak and two amphibious Walrus Supermaryna tied to the shore. Airport continued to break, destroying six parked aircraft and “Hong Kong Clipper” Pan Am, which was located on the reduction. Another four aircraft miraculously survived the bomb, which went through the roof of the hanger, but failed to explode. Over the next two days CNAC aircraft relentlessly evacuated the airport employees in China, while the RAF detachment moved to the island of Hong Kong before the British handed over the territory of Christmas. The Japanese took the Kai Tak for military purposes, but the flights are being performed overhead lines Great Japan, which in peacetime were at the airport, they continued. Two prisoners were erected two-lane cross roads about 2366 feet (1300 meters). From 1942 to 1945, American troops Kai Tak bombed many times with great success, but it was inadvisable to make any sustained effort to remove the occupying troops.

Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945 and the British regained their presence. Despite the fact that the air weapons Grumman Hellcats and Avengers arrived at the airport on 29 August runways were still littered with bars bombs and fragments of the broken enemy aircraft. By mid-September RAF began to restore the presence of Squadron Supermarine Spitfires and for Christmas four squadrons began to act. Short Sunderland flying boats and Douglas DC-3 Dakota were added to the mixture using aviation Hong Kong. British corporation Overseas Airways (BOAC) expressed its intention to establish its flying boats from Ha Tay in the colony, delayed by the war. These services using Class Ha Tay Kander-Sunderland began August 24, 1946. In the same year, a major typhoon struck the region and destroyed several parked aircraft. Then quickly climbed the military aircraft Douglas Dakota, which crashed after takeoff Kovlun Tong.

Squadron RAF came and went through most of the post-war period, bringing with them the range of aircraft, including de Havillend Vennoms, Hawker Hunters and various helicopter types that are used to perform a variety of duties, including search and rescue. The British military also released the threat posed by Chinese communist forces in the Pearl River Delta in the late 40’s and played a role in helping to eliminate the pogroms of Hong Kong in 1967. Since 1993, the airport is supporting the Royal Air Force of Hong Kong. , A division of the Hong Kong Air voluntary Enclosure and later a government flying service. Hong Kong Aviation Club is also located in a corner of the airport, not far from the threshold of runway 13, which in later years has provided enthusiasts an interesting point of view.

Katie Pacific and the post-war development

In October 1945, a former pilot CNAC Roy Farrell, who during the war went infamous eastern Himalayas “Hump” between China, Burma and India, senile acquired Douglas C-47, which he turned into a civic needs of both DC-third He flew the aircraft from the United States on a roundabout route to Shanghai, where he met with his old friend, the former Australian military ace Sid de end. Friends have created an airline, which in February 1946, started operating cargo flights from Shanghai. The plane was registered VR-HAD and was named “Betsy”, a name that they took company, Cathay Pacific Airways, has become a legend. The second DC-3 (VR-HDB) titled “Nikki” was added, and the company quickly became a very lucrative, causing trepidation among their Chinese competitors. The situation has become “unhealthy” in the old Chinese city, and Farrell and de end saw the wisdom to carry their operation in the British-controlled Hong Kong. After air hostesses advertising Cathay Pacific began to make tentative passenger flights to Manila, Bangkok and Singapore. A year later, five DC-3 and two summary amphibians Catalina PBY 5a were purchased second-hand, since added many more places. Catalina, VR-HDT “Miss Macau” made history when it was first subjected to the action of air piracy. July 17, 1948 four Chinese tried to take control of the plane between Macau and Hong Kong, veryvshy that gold bars are transported. It was said that one of the kidnappers possessed basic knowledge about the treatment of the type of aircraft, but it all went wrong when the struggle began, and Captain Dale Kramer shot in the head. The plane went out of control and crashed into the Pearl River Delta with a crew of three and 23 passengers on board. One of the kidnappers was the only survivor. June 15, 1972, a regular event, when over in the & # 39; etnamam aircraft destroyed on board a Convair 880 machine-ies.

In 1948, one of the “noble” of the British trading companies Suir John & Sons invested in Cathay Pacific. Farrel has sold its stake in the airline and returned to Texas in 1948, and de Kansai resigned in 1951. The airline has increased significantly and now & # 39 is one of the leading operators in the world. The main competitors Swire, Giardini Matesan, enjoy the company of Hong Kong Airways, which is also operated from Kai Tak. BOAC airline has invested in this relationship of Chinese cities with international routes, but in 1959, Hong Kong Airways on the & # 39; united with Cathay Pacific. The airline has also established a very authoritative on the & # 39; facility maintenance – Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company (HAECO) in Kai Tak, and in recent years it has become a major shareholder in the rest of the airline based in Hong Kong; Dragunar and Air Hong Kong.

After the war, Kai structure so continued to evolve to meet the ever-changing demands rapid airlines. During the 1950s the airport there is a massive increase in regional and international operations. Многія міжнародныя перавозчыкі, уключаючы BOAC, Pan American Airways, Qantas, Air India, Northwest і Canadian Pacific, дадалі Ганконг да сваіх раскладаў. Дуглас DC-4 і DC-6s, стратакругіры Boeing B-377, Брыстальскія брытаніі і сузор'і Lockheed сталі пастаяннымі наведвальнікамі, а з турбарэактыўнымі рухавікамі з'явілася неабходнасць у больш доўгай узлётна-пасадачнай паласе. У 1958 г. на меліяраванай зямлі на ўзвышшы ў 16 футаў (4,87 метра) над залівам Каўлун з перанаселенай плошчай 750 футаў (228,60 метраў) на паўночным захадзе была адкрыта новая ўзлётная паласа ў 840 футаў (60,96 метра). і 300 футаў (91,44 метра) у вадзе, звернутай да канца. Больш за 3000 рабочых пачалі працаваць над праектам, які пачаўся ў студзені 1956 г., але быў завершаны своечасова прыбыццём першага рэйса 31 жніўня 1958 г. Таксама былі дададзены паралельны маршрут таксі і новы будынак пасажырскага тэрмінала. На афіцыйным адкрыцці ўзлётна-пасадачнай паласы 12 верасня Камета 4 BOAC, спецыяльна вылецелая ў Ганконг з аэрадрома дэ Хавілленд у Хэтфілдзе, стала першым самалётам для рэактыўных самалётаў, якія калі-небудзь прызямліліся ў аэрапорце. Да канца 1958 г. было прыбыта 4773 самалёта, а 19 авіякампаній выконвалі 184 рэйсы ў тыдзень да і з Кай Так. 17 ліпеня 1959 года Cathay Pacific DC-3 афіцыйна адкрыў начныя аперацыі ў аэрапорце пасля ўстаноўкі дадатковага асвятлення.

У 1960 годзе “Пан Ам” вылецеў у Бэй-707 на Кай Так, а ў тым жа годзе – першы ДК-8, які эксплуатуецца японскімі паветранымі лініямі. Веха наступіла, калі 11 красавіка 1970 года першы Б-747, “Pan Am 'Clipper One”, закрануў сведку шырокай натоўпу. Прыход шырокай эпохі прынёс дадатковы ціск для далейшага павелічэння даўжыні ўзлётна-пасадачнай паласы. Да 1974 года прыбудова пашырыла яго да 11 130 футаў (3,390 метраў) і былі дададзены дадатковыя маршруты для дарог, адключэння і стаянкі, а таксама новая пажарная частка. Трафік павялічыўся да такой ступені, што ў 1995-96 гг. 61 авіякампанія, якая карысталася Кай Так, садзейнічала 2850 пасажырскіх і грузавых рэйсаў і 230 нерэгулярных рэйсаў штотыдзень. 78 адсоткаў гэтых рэйсаў былі самалётамі шырокага корпуса, і гэта павялічыла колькасць пасажыраў, якія праходзілі праз тэрмінал, да 28 мільёнаў. Абсталяванне таксама стала другім у свеце загружаным грузавым аэрапортам 1,48 мільёна тон. З 31 запланаванага руху ў гадзіну Kai Tak дасягнуў максімальнай магутнасці, і сотні дадатковых просьбаў аб пасадачных слотах павінны былі адмовіцца. Было відавочна, што новы аэрапорт быў неабходным, і калі ён адкрыўся для бізнесу ў 6.20 раніцы з прыбыццём Cathay Pacific CX889 прама з Нью-Ёрка, гэта было не раней.

* Чамусьці з “аэрапорта” выкінулі “c”, хаця ён і з'явіўся як Kai Tack на арыгінальных варотах.

Аўтар: Боб Блеффілд

Interesting information about parrots and their allies

315 parakeets, parrots, cockatoos, Lori, loryketav, macaws, lovebirds, budgies, – a diverse group; but they are so united in their diagnostic features that they are recognizable at first sight as the terms of the order and some & # 39; and. They Var & # 39; iruyutstsa in size from small parrots, dwarf parrots in the region of Papua and 3.5-inch long tailed arches of the Amazon jungle. They differ in the form of fatty African Lovebird and the South American Amazon to slim Laurie dikakrylyh cockatoo Avstralamalayskaga region. Coloring does not bring results in a sentence, but their body is usually a solid green, yellow, red, white or black, with contrasting patches of red, yellow or blue on the head, wings and tail.

Defining characteristics of a & # 39 is a large head and short neck, and especially the strongly curved, wounded bill. No less important structural feature with a & # 39 are strong, grasping in the parrot legs with two toes in front and two behind. The parrots wide croup at the base of the bill, through which the nostrils open and in which there are a lot of birds. Their little eyes are often bordered with spots of bare skin, especially in the larger species. They are quite rare plumage a powder, scattered on it.

Parrots – a distinctive ancient group, which guarantees its ordinal rank. They demonstrate some commitment to the anatomy and habits as a pigeon, and a cuckoo. On the & # 39; As a matter of fact the tree birds, their minerals are bad. The earliest so far discovered miotsenavaga age, less than 15 million years ago. These parrots show earlier were widespread in the temperate latitudes than they are today, extending to the north almost to Canada, North America, France and Europe.

The current distribution of parrots – panterapichnae. They are found in all the lands of southern hemispheres & # 39; I, with the exception of the southern edge of Africa, and the more remote islands of the Pacific Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere & # 39; and they now reach northern Mexico (the central part of the United States until recently) in the New World, and south-east Asia in the Old. Parrots are divided into six main groups, which are sometimes assigned to the family title, but the structural differences between them are so small that most students today assigns a substring at best.

Although they have never been domesticated in the sense that the chickens, ducks and pigeons there are probably more species of parrots, tamed and bred in captivity, than any other group of birds. Primitive tribes have kept them as pets since ancient times. Talking African gray parrot is mentioned in the ancient Greek and Roman writings. parrot attractiveness is partly aesthetic, partly anthropomorphic. In combination with their attractive colors and the ease with which they are tamed and kept in captivity, it is their intensely human traits that mimic the human voice, showing affection for each other, react to flattery and used his legs almost like a hand. No other bird does not keep the food with one foot and bites off pieces, as much as eating a sandwich. Parrots are extremely durable. How long the birds living in the wild, where natural enemies take his confession, is not known, but people live in captivity up to 50 years, and one was reported to have reached 80 years.

attributes parrot

Parrots develop the ability to imitate only in captivity. In the wild, they galavakruzhanyya birds that scream or fall or Twitter, depending on their size, and have a poor range of vocal expression. However, in captivity, they learn to imitate all sorts of sounds, some types are better than others. The African gray parrot is one of the best facial expressions, followed closely go green amazon Central and South America. Larger and smaller species are not so good. Cockatoos and macaws can learn a phrase or two, and little budgies and parrots can be taught to whistle a melody when enough patience.

Although the Parrot lovers will cite examples proving the opposite, talking parrots do not have any idea about what they are saying. Often it required little imagination to put the relevant words that they utter. Parrots learn best when young and more repeat simple sounds that they hear most often with little choice or selectivity. During construction of the house in the next section of young yellow head Amazon was on the bag. Zaintryguyuchy sound fasteners handsaws, the bird made it a favorite subject when your vocabulary. My friend soon tired of hearing how carpenters whole day see and give the bird in the zoo.

In the 1930s, parrot lovers was a heavy blow when it was discovered that parrots suffering from a viral disease, originally called psitakozam that they can pass on to people, sometimes virulent form. To combat the disease prohibits the importation of wild plants, and the movement of parrots in the cells affected by the sur & # 39; oznay failure. Later, researchers found that "papugaynaya fever" was found in almost all birds, including pet birds and pigeons, and the disease is now more appropriately called psittacosis. antytoksiny and antibiotics, which greatly reduces the severity of virulent strains, and fear of the disease is now overcome have been developed. Parrots again gain the advantage in the form of cell-birds, especially young budgies, are now bred in white and yellow, far from the blues and greens of their wild Australian patomnikav.

Gavdy Ara

Kings of the family parrot to the & # 39 are 15 whimsical Macaws living in tropical forests from Mexico south through Central and South America. One of the largest and most beautiful – red and green macaw found from Panama to Bolivia. At full development only the tail length of more than two feet. Slightly smaller hyacinth macaw, which is highly prized parrot lovers for their excellent color, lives only in the spaces of the Brazilian jungle. The most common macaws in zoos – scarlet macaw blue and golden macaw. The second type, widely distributed from Mexico to the south – a military macaw, all green with a red forehead. Ari usually travel in pairs. Because these magnificent birds fly, viskayuchy on strong and swift wings of the high space of native jungle, they become much more spectacular view than their domesticated counterparts at the zoo, and none of them does not forget. Other group members less; all have been finished tails.

New World parrots

Perhaps the most famous parrots of the New World with the & # 39 are the 25 or so species of the Amazon, which are often found in the form of avian cells. This beautiful green parrot with short square or rounded tails, most of which are marked in yellow, red or blue. One of the largest, with a yellow head Amazon, one of the best American parrots. Other Amazons, which are usually found in cells – a yellow and red, because one of the yellow, and the other with a red forehead. One of the youngest – 10-inch Amazon with white paws, a white forehead, bright red bloom with red stakes and the wing of a man.

there are horses that are smaller and more slender Among the less familiar groups of New World parrots than Amazon, and have a long, pointed tail. The most striking in this group with a & # 39 Gold is part of Brazil. It also classified the only parrot, who was born in the US, recently extinct Caroline Parachute, small parrot length of about 12 inches with a yellowish-green body, long pointed tail and orange-yellow head.

In the early 19th century Carolina Railings Var & # 39; Irawan from North Dakota and south central New York to eastern Texas and Florida and was abundant in the densely lesapadobnyh lowlands of the Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic coast. Killed sports and deepen its control on fruit and cereals, parrots flock had the unfortunate habit of soaring with curiosity and concern for the felled bird, the hunter often could kill them all. They have become extremely rare in 1900. The latter were seen in the Florida Everglades in the early 1920s. In the 19th century, they are usually stored in a cell of cells, but they have never been successfully grown in captivity, and species disappear before it was possible to make a determined effort to save it.

The size and shape similar to the Amazon – an African gray parrot, which enjoys the highest price among parrots birds among traders because of its mimetic skill. This gray red bird is at home in the tropical forests of the Congo from the Gold Coast to Kenya and Tangayki. Like many smaller parrots in the wild, it is usually seen in a shout, chatter of flocks flying over the treetops by bullets. In West Africa it causes significant damage to grain.


Lovebirds – a group of small, heavy tsyalestyh, Old World parrots that are most developed in Africa and Madagascar. They are highly valued as a bird-cage, in part because of their attractive colors, partly human traits like one single company. The cage bird sitting huddled on the clock, giving every evidence of affection for each other. In the wild, lovebirds usually travel in large flocks, and often damage crops. Most of the sexes is similar, but in the lush elektrusav on the islands of South Pacific floor flooring so different in color (bright green males, females soft maroon), that once they were considered different species.


These parrots – a widespread group of Old World with the center in the Indo-Malayan region. In most of these small parrots have long pointed tails. Many live in areas of cultural and eating grains, and fruits. They travel in large reeds and often feed on the ground. The most famous of the group & # 39 is wavy parrot from Australia, is now popular as a bird cell. Amazing group – hanging parrots, tiny green birds found from India to the Philippines, who sleep at night, hanging upside down from a chicken.

Another distinct group of Australian and Malaysian parrots consists of 16 cockatoos, which differ from other parrots that have a crest of long pointed feathers that they can be raised and lowered at will. Most beautiful white bird size, often they are washed and stained with bayonets or yellow, and some color crest varies. Wild cockatoo – a noisy fast birds that travel in small loose flocks on the tops of trees and akunyatstsa open extremities, where they are noticeably stand out against the dark foliage. White cockatoo in the Solomon Islands was a familiar American birds during the Great Patriotic War, and the people were as pets alive. Marine outfit bee taught one bird monotonously repeating, "Bledsoe said yes," to the delight of the army and the irritation of the imperial executive officer Mr. Bledsoe. Among ordinary white cockatoos in zoos can be found gray cockatoo with its bright yellow crown and pink-shaded Cockatoo Leadbeater.

black cockatoo

The largest of the & # 39 is a 31-inch black cockatoo New Guinea, which is a huge curved bill ends on a long and sharp point. With him and Black Cockatoos crack digs meat from solid shell that the person has to break the stone. In contrast to the white cockatoo, black cockatoo – lonely bird, which is usually seen alone or in small groups of two or three in the tops of tall trees of the jungle. Unlike other cockatoo, black cockatoo has a bare face, and his cheeks vary from pink to red with a bird feeling.

Lori and Loryket

In the "Lori" and larykety Australian field length of 6 to 15 centimeters, brilliantly colored in greens, blues, reds and yellows, languages ​​ablyamovvayutstsa using excellent fringe for pressing nectar and fruit juices. Unlike other birds, which feed on nectar-bearing flower nectar with thin tubular bills, lorytsy razdushvayuts flowers beaks and spread on a squeezed juice language. A common bird on coconut plantations on the islands of the South Sea Islands – is painted, or Rainbow, Loryket, slender birds with long tails, which makes its way into many geographical races, each population of the island is somewhat different in color and size. Large flocks of these birds twittering and chatter click on the tops of trees and climbing palms trees, as in many bright colors. Just all of a sudden they will fly again with a great cover of the wings, still balbatayuchy.

Pygmy parrots

The smallest of the family – a tiny psittaculirostris length of 3 to 5 inches, six species whose Var & # 39; iruyutstsa from New Guinea to the east through New Britain and the Solomon. These goats woodpecker are smaller than parrots. They crawl on the trunks and large limbs of forest trees, which inflated the insects from the bark cracks. They have a hard woodpeckers like tails with spiny tips, and long claws that cling to the bark. They are not as prevalent and sweet, like most other parrots, and their quiet and hard to find in the persecution of the jungle. They have never been successfully kept in captivity.


The most strange and indulgent of all parrots – New Zealand kakapo, parrot or Sava. This is a very rare bird is endangered representatives of New Zealand predators since lost the power of flight. Large parrot length of about 20 centimeters, his soft feather pre-soaked with green, yellow, brown and black. A lot at night he hides during the day in holes in the rocks and under the roots of trees, and at night goes to food. He quickly runs through the land, and if in a hurry, often spreads its wings. He climbs into the trees on fruit and nectar, and then slide to the ground. His longest recorded glide about 90 yards. In the forest environment, he often visits his ways and trails, discovering the roots and vegetation in its path. It is believed that kakapo became extinct on the North Island, but recently it was reported that a wide beech forests there were some in the South Island.

Kea and Kaka

Evenly and abnormal two other parrots in New Zealand, Kea and Kaka, both fairly large bird the size of a crow, brownish-green color, variously marked with red and yellow. Kay – a mountainous form that lives above the tree line in alpine areas of the South Island, where it nests in cracks Crane and under rocks. In the summer he lives on a regular diet of parrots with fruits and buds, supplemented by insects, worms and pears. In winter it descends to a lower level where it becomes musorshchykam and acquired nasty habit of pecking at the backs of live sheep fat their kidneys. To stop the killing of sheep, the bounty has been put on Keasa and 8 yardny period they paid almost 30 000. This had little effect on their numbers, which obviously increased due to abundant supply. Removal of all rubbish sheep after the cut has been found more effective way to deal with them.

A close relative of Kea, Kaka, lives in the forests of the low level on both islands. This is a noisy bird that is usually seen in flocks. He lives on fruits and nectars, and Shcherbina digs rotten wood with its powerful beak.

breeding parrots

Parrots surprisingly monotonous in their nesting habits. Eggs parrots pretty white, round, always white and rather glossy. Number masonry var & # 39; iruetstsa 1 in some large species to 9 or 10 in some smaller and averages from 3 to 5. Most parrots – nests within the cavity and typically lie in the unopened aperture on the tree. Some nest in burrows in the ground, some in rock crevices. Dwarf parrots and a few other small Australian species dig nests in the homes of termites. Incubation is usually both sexes; several kinds of one female. Usually young hatch naked, but soon grow down coats, making them look incredibly similar to sons. Little is known about their incubation period, but at a small parapet, they are about 17 to 20 days. Both sexes feed the young by regurgitation as doves.

Gray Argentina chest nest colonially in huge structures built of branches, tall trees, where each pair of birds has its own private office. Birds use these huge nests as dormitories throughout the year and added to them from year to year, while the cargo load or a few sprigs of not destroying the bearing industry. Other birds, such as ducks trees, sometimes occupy empty nests in these colonies, along with parrots, and once in a while possums move and obviously live in peace with them.

Important equipment for wakeboard: what you need for a great experience wakeboard

Planting in the evenings – it is such a great sport that many people hooked. This gives a new dimension of opportunities where you can express themselves. Exciting sport that gives you a whole new excitement, thrills and fun, all fused into one. Almost anyone can experience this relatively new sports craze.

Collect the correct transmission – is the first step in planting. Begin by knowing the basic equipment needed for wakeboarding. They can meet, get to know if the riders who already have their own equipment. In addition, there are great resources on the Internet. Here are the main equipment used in wakeboarding.


Change your boat before you even try to become budilshchykam. If it comes in the wake of water skiers and veykbordistav completely different purpose. Skiers, rude, they do not want to wake up. Wake bumpers want maximum awakening. You'll be surprised how much better you'll be if you give yourself a good trail.

Almost any boat can be a good fit, but if you have a good tournament, you can do a particularly good boat. Ski boats have excellent power and control – all you need – it is the "awakening of matter." wake-up material – literally matter that makes wake – is weight. Basically, all the suras & # 39; serious veykbordysty use a few giant bags of water that they are generally referred to as Fat Sacs (which also happens brand name). Two bags, one on each side of the engine, – a good starting point. This will add about 600 pounds to your boat and at least a foot. If you just miss out on the trail, like a stone on a pond, you need a large wake.

The next key to increase the air & # 39 is the use of an extended pylon. Most riders refer to these poles as the Skylons (and other brand). Elongated pylon can provide you good air on semi-cabin, providing a sharp rise up, without much effort on your part. This will give you extra time to float in order to really spoil this movement and & # 39 will be the waiting time that you are looking for. Large waves plus the horizon is really wakeboarder – automatic acceptance on the lake.


Boarding ropes made of Spectra, Spectra-Fusion and Tak, have a zero plaque, look almost like armrests and weigh almost nothing. Almost all standard cables up to 60 feet, 15 feet shorter than a ski rope, but they can be ordered to accommodate longer lengths.


In veykbordystav have their own boards. It seems that the lawyers of the Old West had their own guns, you come to the boat all set – with your own board. Do not meet with colleagues. Never will not feel like your, and with the definition in styles today, you'll look like a cook who drives your friend and a mini-syringe, if you weigh 100 pounds more. In addition, the more you want to be a wakeboarder, the newer the board you should ride. Model quickly become outdated, and you have with you. New school rules!


It is not recommended to share boots just like sharing boards. You would not wear a friend Air Jordans. And do not think that the straps are acceptable for surfing because they are regulated. They – the ancient relics, and if you do not tow in Hawaii, you'll look stupid. These shoes are shoes, especially high-tech models, such as boots and CWB Vert Fulltilt XTC (very futuristic) own boots such as Bad Ass Bindings or Wiley & # 39; s or the top line Hyperlite Storm Troopers or Liquid Force Super suction.

It is important to have all of them, if you really suras & # 39; ozna belong to this rider.

Located on the Big Sioux River

The largest city in South Dakota – Sioux Falls, located on the beautiful river the Big Sioux. Sioux Falls not only has a phenomenal history, but also surrounded by a wealth of natural forests and beauty. If you are looking for a luxury vacation, you can book one of the hotels in Sioux Falls. The area attracts thousands of visitors, as it is a relatively rich city.

It serves types of preferences and offers cultural sites, as well as hiking trails. This vacation spot is ideal for outdoor enthusiasts and tourists who love their home comfort. Weather & # 39; var e & # 39; iruetstsa from season to season. Summers are warm and winters bring snow and strong wind.

Once you arrive at Joe Foss Field, there are a variety of transportation options. You can hire a car or a taxi. If you are booked in one of the hotel, providing transportation to the airport and out of it. It also provides luxurious accommodation and housing business class. In just a luxury room with stunning views.

The city has plenty of activities such as crafts and market Indian art market in North Plains. The summer months are filled with festivals such as the Jazz Festival, and Sioux Blues. In addition, there is a "Jazz Fest", "Sivski Renaissance Fest" and the festival "Spirit of the West"

There are fantastic restaurants and shopping centers. Not forgetting the stunning waterfalls, natural wonder, thanks to which the Sioux Falls got its name. You can also view the city's earliest and most beautiful historic buildings. Recently built an impressive observation tower where you can see all the wonders of Sioux Falls. Hotels are essential if you want to spend an unforgettable holiday. You are guaranteed to spend a memorable and relaxing holiday.

Visit South Dakota Park for the weekend and explore the entire park

Vadaspadny park in the center of Sioux Falls occupies 123 acres. This park has 7,400 gallons of water and includes the observation tower, open-air shelter house a winter wonderland and a variety of Christmas ornaments season.

Daylight saving time for Falls Park keeps it open from 5 am to 12 am. However, one thing is very strict: people can not drink alcohol here in the Falls Park.


Located in Sioux Falls South Dakota and exciting place for a great weekend. There are many things to do, and in the immediate vicinity there is a state park "palisade". There is a purity, which is maintained and pragulnyya zone but local basketball and hockey teams to sell their games. However, do not forget to play the colder arenas.

Do not miss

Walking around the city, Sioux Falls allows you to walk through the city center to the Vera park and back to the East coast. The city is clean, as in a dream, and restaurants that offer the best breweries, such as CH Patisserie. You can try the beer in the courtyard of the Midwest in the House Hit Monks.

control laws

  • Maximum speed limit 80mphph. On the highway, the speed is limited to 55 to 80 miles / h, maintaining the exception of urban areas near Rapid City, Sioux Falls and North Sioux City.
  • South Dakota strictly relates to the use of seat belts and infant.
  • Drivers should slow down the speed limit of at least 20 miles / h on the double-girder shashah, but drivers in long-distance traffic must merge into the far lane and motorists must slow down the movement of the car with yellow or amber flashing lights.
  • Motorists should be 18 years or older and must wear a safety helmet, and even the passenger should be wearing eye protection.
  • Rules prohibited parking must know, for example, prohibited parking at a distance of 15 feet of a fire hydrant in front of a private or public road, 20 feet from an intersection or crosswalk, 30 feet away from any sign of punctuation, migtselnaga signal or traffic signal.
  • Other places where specified parking is prohibited.

Remember that violations of the law about parking in South Dakota are punishable by fines, and if you pay for parking, your insurance rates will be safe.


  • The nearest station – Webber (East Side) and a 9-minute walk, and Weber 4th corner of a 12-minute walk away, and the 6th Kilia College is a 15-minute walk.
  • On the way, walk ye in Minnesota Avenue north to Sixth Street, turn east and go through the 3rd quarter of Phillips Avenue. Turn to the north and along the road to get to the Falls Park. The first lot is on the left in the parking lot.

gravity point

Queen Bee Mill

This seven-storey care children Richard Petsigry. He bought the land and built the structure of the art mill, which processes every day about 1,500 bushels, but in 1883 it was closed due to lack of wheat and water power.

Winter Wonderland

The park of the year in mid-November to mid-January exciting lights are working. This ride is not to be missed.

The whole park has a plurality of permanent sculptures, besides the rotating pieces of sculpture.

Shelter under the open sky
This Farmers & # 39; The house is on the market available for special events and large picnics.

Become a nurse travel nursing companies and research

Seasonal and regional shortage of nurses in the 1980s caused the emergence-techs of companies that specialize in providing nurse the opportunity to travel anywhere in the US where there is a lack of nurses. Since the US Bureau of Labor Statistics expects the nursing shortage worsen over the next seven years, nursing travel – a field with the expected strong growth. This fact can make anyone who appreciates sur & # 39; a serious car & # 39; a career in health care, become a medical nurse, except for the majority of people who do not know how to become.

In order to become a nurse in the journey, the person must have an active state license as a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or a nurse practitioner and have a good reputation. The nurse also requires at least one year of medical experience, preferably in a hospital setting. Then it's time to find a travel recruitment agency, which place them at an agreed number of jobs across the country or on the spot.

Before you decide to settle in any travel agency, which is listed on the Internet, it is strongly recommended to see what the United States are favorable for them. According to one of the web sites for the elderly care in Florida, California and Arizona have the most opportunities for nurses. However, if people want to work and live somewhere in the United States, it is possible, since nurses can travel in all states. They just have to get a license of the State where they work.

The next step is to become a nurse from the & # 39 is the study of travel agencies. In conducting research tour companies and what they offer to their customers, it is necessary to take into account, the agency helps its customers to get a state license or not. This factor helps determine how useful agency and can help a person determine whether he wants to work with the agency. While 27 states require that nurses receive from them a license to work there, the other 23 states – not. These 23 States concluded an agreement known as the Treaty on nursing license that allows a nurse to work in any of the 23 states with the license obtained from only one of the 23 states. According to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, these 23 states with the & # 39 are Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin.

Some travel health agency will recruit specifically for the job, execute contracts and help in finding accommodation. Most agencies will organize a house in his name, while some allow the nurse to participate in the search and selection of housing. If the nurse decides to go outside the company when buying a home, most companies offer a stipend for housing.

Some agencies offer assistance on travel, which may or may not cover all transport costs. Some agencies offer health insurance, licensing, compensation, bonuses for direction for the direction of travel nurses in stock investments, compensation for additional education, vacation and sick days.

Assignments for travel can range from eight weeks to one year; However, on average the majority of jobs is only thirteen weeks. At the end of the job, nurses can choose to stay in that place, if possible, or choose another available space. For nurses can enroll in several travel agencies and modify at will.

After investigating travel agencies that feed people and decided with a travel company to work, it is best to schedule an interview with a travel agency. During an interview with & # 39; w company feeds, will evaluate the person placing skills. The client will be assigned rekruter to overcome individual needs, goals and opportunities. Rekruter contact the client when it becomes available to the corresponding position.

Ghost towns in Fargo, North Dakota

You are close to Fargo and looking for a little adventure or some great photos? Close to Fargo has several surprising findings that are really interested in you, especially if you are captured again show commentator on the hunt for ghosts or History Channel. Ghost towns near Fargo will keep you busy and on my feet all day!

I'm sure you probably thought ghost towns were only down south in Arizona or Texas, but they are actually scattered throughout the United States. North Dakota has a share of ghost towns, ghost towns 66 and 10 near Fargo. In some of the more abandoned buildings still standing than others, and some still have a few people.

Arena, North Dakota, was abandoned in fact, not so long ago. It looks like a small town, but no one lives there. The remaining remnants of the school, the elevator, the church and some residences. White church with gray wood is particularly photogenic. Arena is located 180 km from Fargo.

Havana is 109 miles south of Fargo, near the South Dakota border. The whole city is full of abandoned buildings.

In Kidville a few foundations and left blocks, but has a very interesting history. It is 1.5 km south-west of Fort Ransom, and 88 miles from Fargo. The heyday of the city was between 1897 and 1923. This is the first city in the county, received a phone. From 1917 to 1919 Var & # 39; yaty sheltered the fugitive in the city and threatened the inhabitants of the murder.

Sherbruk is located 84 km from Fargo and has several overgrown vacant houses and stone foundations of a large building. He was once a district Steele County.

Garfield is located 71 km from Fargo. The city was moved in 1884 River Park, but still remain traces Kitsana, cemetery and church.

North Almonte is 229 miles from Fargo. The town has a grain elevator and a residue.

Omemee is 258 miles from ONLY Fargo, and all that remains – this is the streets, sidewalks and about eight buildings. The city was founded at the intersection of two railroads. The last residents left in the 1980s.

Hamberg is located in 178 km from Fargo with dirty streets, which are destroyed wooden structures and old stone buildings. There is an abandoned bank, post office, school and church.

If you go to ghost towns, be sure to bring your camera, get out and walk. Imagine what life was like and how the city looked in recent years.

Truckers and the law of the chain!

Winter often means snowy and icy roads. Experienced truck drivers know that the smaller the load, the less traction tires have. Even trucks that pull large loads can lose traction in snow and ice. That is why many States have enacted a law chain. The Law on the circuit requires truckers to put on their tire chains to get more traction. Normally, when a circuit is needed for trucks, cars must use chains or snow tires.

chains of the law is published on road signs and on the portals of the state of traffic on the sites of hot traffic lines and the like. Typically, you see that only the law of the chain of actions in the mountain passes, but the states may require chains on any roadway, facing a dangerous winter travel conditions.

Some states require that truckers transporting the minimum necessary circuit during the winter months, even if they do not plan to arrange the circuit. Many states may allow cables instead of chains, but most will need to deliver the chain. Cables tend to frown, because they are less effective.

California law laws

Road Conditions: 800-427-7623 (in the state) or 916-445-7623 (not in the condition)
Cal-Trans: 916-654-5741

California does not require road vehicles transporting the chain at certain times of the year. However, if the trucks are included in the posted "necessary circuitry" zone, they must have a network. And if the law of the chains, truckers can not continue without chains on their tires. Cal-Trans will set the zone to check the truck when the chain need to make sure that trucks carry the minimum required chains, so if they will need to use chains, they will be able to install them.

Generally, California requires pyatsivosevyya trucks having a tire chain on all of the main drive shaft, two tires on the second drive axis and one tire on each side of the trailer – any axis.

California has three circuit conditions which they perform.

Act R-1:

Chains required on all vehicles, except passenger cars and light trucks weighing up to 6,000 pounds of weight brutal and equipped with snow tires on at least two drive wheels. The chains must be transported by vehicles that use the snow tire. All vehicles towing trailers must have one drive chain axis. Trailers with brakes must have chains on at least one axis.

Act R-2:

Chains required on all vehicles except four-wheel drive vehicles, which have a 6500-pound weight and equipped with snow tires on all four wheels. Chains for one set of drive wheels must be transported by four vehicles driven on the snow.

Act R-3:

Chains are required on all vehicles without exception.

Law Chain Colorado

road conditions: 511 or (303) 639-1111 (unable) / 877-315-7623 (able)

chains of law applies to commercial vehicles – if the truck has a total weight of 10,000 pounds, and the total weight of the car (truck and trailer) is 26001 pounds if a truck has a weight of 26,001 pounds or if the vehicle is designed to transport 16 or more passengers (including the driver).

C 1 September to May 31 drivers must be transported on a chain I from the marker 70 mile marker 163 to 259 miles. If you are on this stretch of road were no chains, you can be fined $ 50 plus a $ 13 co-pay ($ 73).

New penalties! If the law of the chains, but you do not want to wear a chain, you can be fined up to $ 500 plus US $ 157 (657). If the law of the chains, but you decide not to wear a chain, and you wind the way, blocking the road, you can be fined up to $ 1,000, plus a supplement of $ 313 (in 1313 dollars).

Colorado has two levels of the chain of law which they operate.

Level I chain law:
All uniaxial combined vehicles should be a chain. This means that if the truck has only one drive axle (as opposed to a double), chains are required. All drive tires must be chained.

on the levels of II degree of the law:
Chains are required for all trucks.

Idaho law

Idaho road conditions: 511 or 888-432-7623

Idaho does not require that vacationers transporting chains in the winter months. However, the network may need to continue their journey in the winter out & # 39; e.

Montana law circuit

Montana road conditions: 511 or 406-444-6339 or 800-226-7623

Montana does not require that vacationers transporting chains in the winter months. However, if you decide to travel without putting chains on the tires in placing the "chain", and get into an accident, you have to pay a big fine. Montana requires that all tires of the drive here was prykovany when the chain law is valid.

Nevada law

Nevada road conditions: 511 or 877-687-6237

The state of Nevada has roadside signs that proclaim "With flashing lights, chains or snow tires are necessary." If lamps are flashing, the circuit required to continue the journey. Vehicles that weigh more than 10 000 pounds, should use the chain.

The Law on the chain of North Dakota

North Dakota road conditions: 511 or 866-696-3511

In North Dakota, there is no mandatory law of the chain.

The Law on Arygone

Oregon road conditions: 511 or 503-588-2941

During the winter the outside & # 39; I need trucks to carry the minimum number of chains that they need to wear. Oregon does not need to move the chain between the specified dates, but the circuit must be in the truck during winter conditions outside & # 39; I.

During the conditional closure of roads drivers should be installed on its tire chain to continue travel.

Oregon uses road signs to inform drivers about the following requirements. When the sign says "Snow Zone, chains or traction tires", the truck must be placed the minimum required chains for your truck. If the tires it says "Snow Zone, chains are required on towing vehicles or more than 10 000 GWh," on the tires should be installed the minimum required chains for your truck. If the sign says: "Snow Zone, chains are required, traction tires are allowed on vehicles less than 10,000 GW" on the tires should be installed the minimum required chains for your truck.

South Dakota law

road conditions in South Dakota: 511 or 866-697-3511

South Dakota does not require truckers to carry chains, but there are times when travel is restricted to trucks without chains on the tires.

Law Chain Utah

Utah road conditions: 511 or 866-511-8824

Utah require vehicles that are likely to encounter conditions that require the inclusion in the chain to provide sufficient drive chains on one axis.

The law of the State of Washington state circuit

Washington Road Condition: 511 or 800-695-7623

All vehicles over 10,000 pounds must carry the minimum required chains from November 1 to April 1 each year on the following routes:

I-82 between Elensburg Yield 3 (MP 3:00) and Selah Exit 26 (MP 26.00)

I between 90 North Bend (MP 32) and Ellensburg (MP 101)

Route 2 between Dryden (MP 108) and an index (MP 36)

Route 12 between Packwood (MP 135) and Naches (MP 187)

Route 14 (MP 18) to the junction 97 (MP 102)

Route 20 between Tanasketam (MP 262) and Chinese waterfall (MP 342)

Route 97 between (MP 145) and a decoupled SR-2

Route 97 between isolation SR-14 (MP 4) of Columbia River and Toppenish (MP 59)

The track 155 between Omaki (MP 79) and immature (MP 45)

Route 410 from Enumclaw to Nachesa

Route 542 between Mt Baker Highway (MP 22.91) and (MP 57.26)

Route 970 between (MP 0) and (MP 10)

Wyoming law

road conditions: 511 or 888-996-7623

Wyoming time will turn off the freeway, except for all the cars to drive on wheels and vehicles equipped with chains or snow tires.

The reasons for visiting France – 5 things that you might not think

Americans have long loved to travel to France, especially in Paris. Millions visit there annually. Many of those who visit once, plan to return. Some rethinking many times. Why? Paris exciting. Elegant. Historic. Complex. Stylish. Memorable. Cultural. Art. Quoting Henry Miller, "When spring comes to Paris, the most humble mortal alive must feel that they live in paradise." With reference to Thomas Jefferson, "walk around Paris will give the lessons of history, beauty and way of life."

Many reasons for visiting France in general and Paris in particular – the ones you already know. Friends and relatives who have traveled to France, may have brought home stories that sparked your curiosity and your desire to see for himself. You've seen the pictures and movies. Have you heard about the wonders of the Eiffel Tower, which rises like a giant erectors, with an elevator to get you to the top to get a view of the Seine and the city. You know about the exceptional art museums, the Louvre and the Orsa preserving a stunning collection of buildings, which are themselves a & # 39 are historical, architectural treasures, a former palace and a second elegant century railway station, built for the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900.

Probably, you will also have heard about the food and wine, as well as the greatest pleasure of good food, optimal for an outdoor table in the charming restaurants that carefully attend every detail of your experience. You may have heard about the beauty of the countryside, with drifts of lavender and cities on the slopes of the slopes, perfect farms and spectacular mountains and coastal areas. Of course, you've heard about the history and architecture, fashion and style.

So what else can you say that will add to these and other motivations you already have in mind a visit to France? These five reasons – those which you may have not yet thought of. Perhaps they could translate the balance in favor of your journey and accelerate your path.

French – it is people you will love to experience and learn
Put aside what you may have heard about the hostility of the French. This is simply not the case. But the French are extremely polite and have a more formal and rigid social codes than Americans. This may cause them to face as few and far between. But you can get past this obvious social alertness, knowing a little about how the French communication and interaction. If travelers coming to him with the same courtesy, the French are responsible favor, friendliness, warmth, curiosity and fascination.

Even minimal efforts to speak on the basics in French – hello and goodbye, please, thank you, sorry, and you – bring a high level of profit. And yes, the French will be attempt to speak in English with you as soon as you break the ice, trying to talk to them even a little French. Experience with the French can become strong and cherished dreams.

France – a living museum and a live art
Visiting France offers many opportunities to walk through the outstanding museums. But visible remnants of French history in any case are not limited to museums. Traveling through the streets of the old city, walking through the park, visiting the market town or passing through the huge stone gates of the city of the city, you will find life, history, architecture and art of days gone by.

And what a colorful history. In Avignon you sit on a bench in the courtyard in front Pope's Palace , Home to seven of the papal popes, beginning with the French popes who refused to move to Rome, preferring to continue to live in France. In Orel, you will walk in the footsteps of Van Gogh and visit these places, which are now marked by easels and shows on the map a walking tour where the unbalanced genius was to create his famous starlight night and Night Cafe Terrace .

In Amboise you visit a luxurious palace Françoise I, and then walk down the street and the hill to the lovely villa that Françoise gave her beloved friend, inventor and artist Leonardo da Vinci, a secret tunnel that connects the palace and the villa so that they could at will visit them.

In Paris, you will stand in the courtyard of the Louvre, a small triumphal arch built by Napoleon, and it will look great along the boulevard, a length of more than five miles, to a much greater Arc de Triomphe at the other end. You will walk grande All ev through beautiful Tuileries gardens , Created by Catherine de 'Medici, a model of the palace gardens in her native Florence, that she missed so much.

Coming out of the gardens, you arrive at the historic public square, where during the French Revolution, the guillotine was erected to cut off the king, the queen and other French nobles. In this square is now worth an ancient obelisk from the entrance of the Luxor temple in Egypt, which was a self-styled Khedive Ottoman Empire in exchange for the newest technological marvel France, watches it found to be very accurate, but it never worked.

Living museums and live art.

French way of life moves always make you more healthy and alive person
During a visit to France, you will walk more than you could imagine, but you barely notice the effort. France Walk not in the least sad, so you will be happy to do it. Farewell treadmill.

While the American way of life is based on the cars, the French are guided on the go. If you arrive in each city or town, your quest will begin with a walk through the neighborhood. Here you will discover shops, which are regularly visited by – a liquor store, deli, bakery, fresh market. You will walk into these stores regularly, possibly every day.

You go down to the river to catch a boat to see the bridge, watching the sunset, to sit on the bench. You will go to the open market, and then watch them on the goodies, and from there go to the park on a lovely picnic, consisting of your purchases – delicious strawberries, freshly baked baguettes, sausages and pates, cheeses and olives, and, of course, a nice bottle of wine.

You will wander through the pedestrian streets, browsing the shops, choosing the cafe outdoor table, from which you can people watch your content. In the afternoon you will go to the Cathedral to hear the concert on the powerful body or attend the service. Later in the evening, you again walk around the dinner in a nearby restaurant magic followed by a visit to the piano at the jazz evening. And then back to the river, sagebrush in lights, to watch the boats passing by.

From the metro stop in Montmartre you reach the cable car and get to the top steps of the basilica, and then to Tetra place watch the sidewalks artists. Later, you will pass by the Basilica and climb steep stairs to dinner at one of the most picturesque umbrellas on magic. l & # 39; Eté en Pente Douce .

If your journey continues, you will gradually feel healthy and alive. Your energy level will increase. Over time, walking everywhere will begin to seem normal. And what you're going to be constantly exciting.

French way of attraction will give you more captivating version
In France, you will find another way of interpersonal interaction. As Americans, many of us hardly notice how we have become islands and movements. We work too much. We combine too little. We take ourselves too suras & # 39; ozna, and we may be interested in himself. Unfortunately, we have too little notice and too little time to dedicate to the people in our lives.

In France, not. French culture of interaction is evident from the moment you set foot in the country. It is a culture which takes a two-hour lunch and spend this time in animated conversation with friends and colleagues. If the working day is over, rather than might be expected, they are flocking back to the cafe to sit at the table and discuss the philosophy and life. At the table next to you can see how the pair has a decanter of wine, each of which attends what others say, and carefully looking into each other's eyes as if their friend was the center of the universe.

If you make a purchase on the open market, vegetable seller will listen carefully to understand what you want, and then carefully select only the necessary things. serious efforts to ensure that your choices were the design and color that best suit you and enhance your look, on clothing stalls in the market stylish matron gain immediate and intuitive sense of your style and personality with surprising receptivity, and then will make sur & # 39.

In restaurants, you experience a stormy note your waiter is ready to offer its expert advice to meet your dining room. When you walk into the store in search of gifts for their very favorite in-law, the owners will help you with great deals, and then offer eagerly, nicely wrap the perfect gift in paper and bows.

While you're in France, you will have very little sterile deals But many are attracted interaction . Over time, the pleasure of this difference will start to have an impact on you and the way you feel about others. If you allow yourself to take it all in, you will be more careful to listen more suras & # 39; ozna express their ideas and with great attention and curiosity to see people around you. And after a few visits to the bright French open markets and intriguing shops, your view of the purchase will be changed forever.

You bring home changed appearance, how to live
Much of what you experience while traveling in France, is likely to affect you long after you return home. You will be returned to the other, more vivid look at how you can live. And this new perspective can lead to significant improvements in your life at home.

Now you will know how much processing could be communicating with people who are doing differently than you, knowing that you can apply with them, learn from them and enjoy them.

You will understand how healthy you will feel if you walk more. It can push you find the opportunity to do this at home, I hope, in the direction of such interest, as well as those that you have experienced in France, even if you need to first get to an area where walking can be a pleasure.

And you will know the pleasure more intense and closely interact with the people in your life. You will understand the benefits and value of time to have lunch together and talk with the eyes and mind. Instead of a cafe on the corner, you may need to set up a cafe on the front porch. But, having a creative, you will be able to move this over busy style of communication – to share their thoughts and observations, philosophy and reasoning.

The sum of these unexpected reasons to visit France is to ensure that your trip will have on you and your partner on the journey. Your journey through France to enrich you. It will refresh you. And it will change you. And all of this will benefit. Good luck!